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Posts Tagged ‘SA’

INTERNATIONAL REVIEWERS Masood Ahmed, MBBS, MS Professor, Department of Anatomy, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan Sadakazu Aiso, MD, PhD Professor, Department of Anatomy, Keio University, School of Medicine, Keio, Japan Saad Al-Ali, MB ChB, PhD Senior Lecturer, Department of Anatomy with Radiology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand PD Athavia, MB BS, MS, DHA, DHRD Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, Lokmanaya Tilak […]

INNERVATION Although the impulse-generating and conducting system of the heart establishes an endogenous rhythm, the rate and force of contraction are under neural influence. Both divisions of the autonomic nervous system supply non-myelinated postganglionic fibres to the heart. The innervation is derived bilaterally, but it is functionally asymmetrical. Activation of the left stellate ganglion (sympathetic) […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 63 – CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS WITH SUPRAVENTRICULAR ORIGIN Masood Akhtar Definition and Pathobiology Both of the atria and corresponding ventricles are electrically insulated from each other by fibrous tissue that is the anatomic atrioventricular (AV) junction. The fibrous structures in the AV junction are the […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier CARDIAC ANGIOGRAPHY Angiography almost always is performed during cardiac catheterization by injection of an iodine-containing radiopaque contrast agent. These agents are highly viscous and can cause cardiac arrhythmias and adverse hemodynamic changes secondary to ionic changes, volume expansion, and negative inotropic effects. […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 52 – ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY Leonard Ganz   Edward Curtiss Electrocardiography, which has changed surprisingly little since it was initially introduced by Einthoven in the early 1900s, allows recording of myocardial activation from several vantage points on the body’s surface, thereby permitting analysis of electrical activation in different myocardial […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS TYPE 1 General Biologic Properties Soon after its discovery, HIV-1 was shown to be biologically, structurally, and genetically distinct from human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) and more like members of the lentivirus subfamily of […]

ABBREVIATIONS & SYMBOLS COMMONLY USED IN PHYSIOLOGY Use of abbreviations and acronyms has become so extensive in modern physiology and related sciences that it would be impossible to present a complete list here. Furthermore, most proteins that are isolated today are simply assigned a name made up of letters and numbers that bears no relation […]

CHAPTER 28 This chapter is a review of the conduction system of the heart and the way the impulse that generates a normal heartbeat spreads from the SA node through the AV node, the bundle of His, and the Purkinje system to all parts of the ventricles. The genesis of the ECG, some of its […]

Figure 28-1. Conducting system of the heart. Typical transmembrane action potentials for the SA and AV nodes, other parts of the conduction system, and the atrial and ventricular muscles are shown along with the correlation to the extracellularly recorded electrical activity, ie, the electrocardiogram (ECG). The action potentials and ECG are plotted on the same […]

Figure 28-3. Effect of sympathetic (noradrenergic) and vagal (cholinergic) stimulation on the membrane potential of the SA node.

Table 28-1. Conduction speeds in cardiac tissue. Tissue ConductionRate (m/s) SA node 0.05 Atrial pathways 1 AV node 0.05 Bundle of His 1 Purkinje system 4 Ventricular muscle 1    

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