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Posts Tagged ‘PR’

Haemorrhoidectomy Procedure Excision of haemorrhoids Time 20 min Pain ++/+++ Position Supine, lithotomy, head down Blood loss Not significant Practical technique GA, SV LMA and/or caudal Spinal (“saddle block”) Preoperative Assess suitability for LMA + lithotomy + head down position. Consider ETT if the patient is obese. Perioperative Opioid analgesia—short but intensely painful stimulus. Fentanyl […]

Appendicectomy Procedure Resection of appendix Time 20–40 min Pain ++/+++ Position Supine Blood loss Not significant Practical technique Rapid sequence induction, ETT, IPPV, ilio-inguinal block Preoperative Patients are usually aged 5–20 years and are fit. Can present in the elderly. May be the presenting condition of caecal adenocarcinoma requiring right hemicolectomy. Consent required for suppositories. […]

ANAL CANAL The anal canal begins at the anorectal junction and ends at the anal verge (Figs 67.43–67.45). It is angulated in relation to the rectum because the pull of the sling-like puborectalis produces the anorectal angle. It lies 2–3 cm in front of and slightly below the tip of the coccyx, which is opposite […]

MUSCLES OF THE ANAL CANAL The anal canal is encircled by internal and external anal sphincters, separated by the longitudinal layer, and has connections superiorly to puborectalis and the transverse perineii (Fig. 67.47).    Fig. 67.47  A–C, Axial views of the anal canal at three levels on endoanal ultrasound in a woman. The endoanal ultrasound […]

Table 28-2. ECG intervals.   Normal Duration(s) Events in the Heart Intervals Average Range During Interval PR interval1 0.182 0.12-0.20 Atrial depolarization and conduction through AV node QRS duration 0.08 to 0.10 Ventricular depolarization and atrial repolarization QT interval 0.40 to 0.43 Ventricular depolarization plus ventricular repolarization ST interval (QT minus QRS) 0.32 . . […]

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