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Posts Tagged ‘MRI’

APERTURES A number of structures pass between the thorax and abdomen via apertures in the diaphragm. There are three large openings, for the aorta, oesophagus and inferior vena cava, and a number of smaller ones (Fig. 58.2). The aortic aperture is the lowest and most posterior of the large openings, and is found at the […]

HEART The microstructure of cardiac muscle is described in detail in Chapter 6. GENERAL ORGANIZATION The heart is a pair of valved muscular pumps combined in a single organ (Fig. 56.2A–D). Although the fibromuscular framework and conduction tissues of these pumps are structurally interwoven, each pump (the so-called ‘right’ and ‘left’ hearts) is physiologically separate, […]

VASCULAR SUPPLY AND LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE Coronary arterial supply The right and left coronary arteries arise from the ascending aorta in its anterior and left posterior sinuses (Figs 56.8, 56.9, 56.18A–E). The levels of the coronary ostia are variable. The two arteries, as indicated by their name, form an oblique inverted crown, in which an anastomotic […]

MAJOR BLOOD VESSELS The major blood vessels comprise the pulmonary trunk, the thoracic aorta and its branches, the superior and inferior venae cavae and their tributaries. ARTERIES Pulmonary trunk The pulmonary trunk, or pulmonary artery, conveys deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs (Fig. 56.2A,C; see Fig. 57.8). About 5 cm in length […]

MEDIASTINAL IMAGING Mediastinal structures may be viewed using X-rays, CT and MRI. NORMAL MEDIASTINAL CONTOURS ON FRONTAL CHEST RADIOGRAPH In a standard posteroanterior chest radiograph the X-ray beam passes from back to the front of the chest. The standing patient breath-holds in full inspiration, and elevates and abducts the arms over the radiographic plate, movements […]

THYMUS The thymus (Figs 55.8, 55.9) is one of the two primary lymphoid organs, the other being the bone marrow. It is an encapsulated soft, bilobed organ, the two parts being joined in the midline by connective tissue that merges with the capsule of each lobe. The latter may normally have adhesions to the fibrous […]

DEVELOPMENT The embryology and prenatal development of the thymus are described in Chapter 35. Thymic changes during postnatal life At birth the thymus is most often bilobar. It is 4–6 cm long, 2.5–5 cm wide and 1 cm thick. The thickest part of the gland at birth is not at the thoracic inlet, but immediately […]

MUSCLES The muscles of the upper arm are coracobrachialis, which acts only on the shoulder joint; biceps and triceps, which cross both shoulder and elbow joints; and brachialis, which acts only at the elbow joint (Fig. 47.2, Fig. 47.3).    Fig. 47.3  Muscles, vessels and nerves of the left upper arm, viewed from the posterior […]

COVERINGS AND RELATIONS OF THE SPINAL ROOTS AND NERVES IN THE RADICULAR CANAL Tubular prolongations of the spinal dura mater, closely lined by the arachnoid, extend around the spinal roots and nerves as they pass through the lateral zone of the vertebral canal and through the intervertebral foramina (Fig. 43.3, Fig. 43.4A). These prolongations, the […]

LUMBAR VERTEBRAE Lumbar vertebrae in general The five lumbar vertebrae are distinguished by their large size and absence of costal facets and transverse foramina. The body is wider transversely (Fig. 42.29, see Fig. 42.33B). The vertebral foramen is triangular, larger than at thoracic levels but smaller than at cervical levels. The pedicles are short. The […]

CHAPTER 39 – The orbit and accessory visual apparatus BONY ORBIT The bony orbits are skeletal cavities located on either side of the root of the nose. They house the eyes, the paired peripheral organs of vision. The walls of each orbit protect the eye from injury, provide points of attachment for six extraocular muscles which allow […]

INNERVATION The tympanic cavity contains the tympanic plexus and the facial nerve. Branches from the plexus and the facial nerve supply structures within the tympanic cavity but also leave the cavity to supply structures on the face. Tympanic plexus The nerves that constitute the tympanic plexus ramify on the surface of the promontory on the […]

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