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Posts Tagged ‘MRI’

TIBIOFEMORAL JOINT The tibiofemoral joint is a complex synovial joint and is part of the knee joint. Articulating surfaces Proximal tibial surface The proximal tibial surface (often referred to as the tibial plateau) slopes posteriorly and downwards relative to the long axis of the shaft (Fig. 82.7). The tilt, which is maximal at birth, decreases […]

SKELETAL PELVIS AS A WHOLE The term pelvis (‘basin’) is applied variously to the skeletal ring formed by the hip bones and the sacrum, the cavity therein, and even the entire region where the trunk and lower limbs meet. It is used here in the skeletal sense, to describe the irregular osseous girdle between the […]

PENIS The penis consists of an attached root (radix) in the perineum and a free, pendulous, body (corpus), which is completely enveloped in skin. Skin The penile skin is thin and loosely connected to the tunica albuginea. At the corona of the penis it is folded to form the prepuce or foreskin, which invariably overlaps […]

ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION AND PRIAPISM Failure to achieve tumescence with adequate stimulation is termed erectile dysfunction. The mechanism of erection is complex: failure in any of the previously mentioned components can lead to erectile dysfunction. The commonest causes include psychogenic disturbance with failure to relax cavernous smooth muscle; arterial insufficiency as a result of atheromatous disease; […]

PROSTATE The prostate is a pyramidal fibromuscular gland which surrounds the prostatic urethra from the bladder base to the membranous urethra. It has no true fibrous capsule, but is enclosed by visceral fascia containing neurovascular tissue (Fig. 75.10A,B). The fascia is firmly adherent to the gland and is continuous with a median septum and with […]

CHAPTER 72 – Suprarenal (adrenal) gland The suprarenal (adrenal) glands lie immediately superior and slightly anterior to the upper pole of either kidney (see Fig. 74.5A,B). Golden yellow in colour, each gland possesses two functionally and structurally distinct areas, an outer cortex and an inner medulla. The glands are surrounded by connective tissue containing perinephric fat, enclosed […]

MUSCLES OF THE ANAL CANAL The anal canal is encircled by internal and external anal sphincters, separated by the longitudinal layer, and has connections superiorly to puborectalis and the transverse perineii (Fig. 67.47).    Fig. 67.47  A–C, Axial views of the anal canal at three levels on endoanal ultrasound in a woman. The endoanal ultrasound […]

ANAL CANAL The anal canal begins at the anorectal junction and ends at the anal verge (Figs 67.43–67.45). It is angulated in relation to the rectum because the pull of the sling-like puborectalis produces the anorectal angle. It lies 2–3 cm in front of and slightly below the tip of the coccyx, which is opposite […]

RECTUM The rectum is continuous with the sigmoid colon at the level of the third sacral vertebra and terminates at the upper end of the anal canal. It descends along the sacrococcygeal concavity as the sacral flexure of the rectum, initially inferoposteriorly and then inferoanteriorly, to join the anal canal by passing through the pelvic […]

CHAPTER 63 – True pelvis, pelvic floor and perineum TRUE PELVIS AND PELVIC FLOOR The true pelvis is a bowl-shaped structure formed from the sacrum, pubis, ilium, ischium, the ligaments which interconnect these bones and the muscles which line their inner surfaces. The true pelvis is considered to start at the level of the plane passing through […]

MUSCLES The majority of the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall are functionally part of the lower limb or vertebral column. They provide the surface against which the neurovascular structures of the retroperitoneum lie, and they are supported and separated from the majority of the retroperitoneal structures by fascial layers (Figs 62.4, 62.5; see Fig. […]

CHAPTER 62 – Posterior abdominal wall and retroperitoneum The posterior abdominal wall consists of fasciae, muscles and their vessels and spinal nerves; the overlying skin is continuous with that of the back. It is not easily defined, and is best described as that part of the abdominal wall lying between the two mid-dorsal lines, below the posterior […]

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