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REFERENCES Cormack and Lamberty, 1994.  Cormack GC, Lamberty BGH 1994, see Bibliography. Crock, 1996. Crock HV: Atlas of Vascular Anatomy of the Skeleton and Spinal Cord,  London, Martin Dunitz, 1996. Dodd and Cockett, 1976. Dodd H, Cockett FB: The Pathology and Surgery of the Veins of the Lower Limb,  2nd edn.. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone, 1976. Kosinski, 1926. Kosinski C: Observations on the superficial venous system of the lower […]

CHAPTER 78 – Development of the urogenital system URINARY SYSTEM The urinary and reproductive systems develop from intermediate mesenchyme and are intimately associated with one another especially in the earlier stages of their development. The urinary system develops ahead of the reproductive or genital systems. Intermediate mesenchyme is disposed longitudinally in the trunk, subjacent to the somites […]

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Development of the reproductive organs from the intermediate mesenchyme starts from stage 14, about 10 days later than the urinary system. Bilateral paramesonephric (Müllerian) ducts develop alongside the mesonephric ducts, and the midportion of each mesonephros undergoes thickening to form the gonadal ridge. Although the primordial germ cells are delineated very early in […]

PLACENTAL LOCATION The placenta may be attached at any point on the uterine wall. The site of attachment is determined by the point where the blastocyst becomes embedded: the factors on which this depends are not understood. In early pregnancy the placental disc occupies a large proportion of the uterine cavity and will often appear […]

UTERINE (FALLOPIAN) TUBES The uterine tubes (Fig. 77.26) are attached to the upper part of the body of the uterus and their ostia open into the uterine cavity (Fig. 77.27). The medial opening of the tube (the uterine os) is located at the superior angle of the uterine cavity. The tube passes laterally and superiorly […]

REFERENCES Bishr et al., 2007. Bishr Omary M, Lugea A, Lowe AW, Pandol SJ: The pancreatic stellate cell: a star on the rise in pancreatic diseases.  J Clin Invest  2007; 117:50-59. Kerr, 1999. Kerr JB: Atlas of Functional Histology, Chapter 14,  London, Mosby, 1999. Kimura, 2000. Kimura W: Surgical anatomy of the pancreas for limited resection.  J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg  2000; 7:473-479. Nagai, 2003. Nagai H: Configurational anatomy of the pancreas: its surgical relevance from ontogenetic and […]

VASCULAR SUPPLY AND LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE Arteries The arterial supply of the descending colon is from the inferior mesenteric artery via its left colic branch, which also anastomoses with the marginal artery of the colon (in the region of the splenic flexure), and the sigmoid arteries (in the region of the junction with the sigmoid colon) […]

VASCULAR SUPPLY AND LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE Arteries The arterial supply of the large intestine is derived from both the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries (Fig. 67.11). The caecum, appendix, ascending colon and right two-thirds of the transverse colon (derived from the midgut) are supplied from ileocolic, right colic and middle colic branches of the superior mesenteric […]

REFERENCES Brading and Ramalingam, 2006. Brading A, Ramalingam T: Mechanisms controlling normal defecation and the potential effects of spinal cord injury.  Prog Brain Res  2006; 152:345-358. Broden and Snellman, 1968. Broden B, Snellman B: Procidentia of the rectum studied with cineradiography. A contribution to the discussion of causative mechanisms.  Dis Colon Rectum  1968; 11:330-347. Brown et al., 1999. Brown G, Richards CJ, Newcombe RG, et al: Rectal carcinoma: thin-section MR imaging for staging in 28 patients.  Radiology  1999; 211(1):215-222. […]

VASCULAR SUPPLY AND LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE Arteries Branches from the superior mesenteric artery supply the jejunum and ileum. The arteries divide as they approach the mesenteric border, giving off numerous branches which extend between the serosal and muscular layers, supplying the muscle and forming an intricate sub-mucosal plexus that supplies the glands and villi. Although there […]

VASCULAR SUPPLY AND LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE Arteries The arterial supply to the stomach comes predominantly from the coeliac axis although intramural anastomoses exist with vessels of other origins at the two ends of the stomach (Figs 65.9, 65.10, 65.11). The left gastric artery arises directly from the coeliac axis. The splenic artery gives origin to the […]

PERINEUM MUSCLES AND FASCIAE OF THE PERINEUM The perineum is an approximately diamond-shaped region which lies below the pelvic floor, between the inner aspects of the thighs and anterior to the sacrum and coccyx. It is usually described as if from the position of an individual lying supine with the hip joints in abduction and […]

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