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Posts Tagged ‘HIV’

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 16 – IMMUNIZATION Walter A. Orenstein Immunization is one of the most cost-effective means of preventing morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Routine immunization, particularly of children, has resulted in decreases of 90% or more in reported cases of measles, mumps, rubella, congenital rubella […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier EVALUATION AND THERAPY Diagnosis Initial evaluation should include a complete history and physical examination with careful attention to potential secondary causes of lipid disorders ( Table 217-4 ). Diabetes, hypothyroidism, and excess alcohol intake are probably the most common secondary contributors to […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 205 – PANCREATIC ENDOCRINE TUMORS Robert T. Jensen Definition Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) are also called islet tumors or islet cell tumors; however, because the cell of origin of most is unknown, the general term PET is preferred. This term is also a slight […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 197 – HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA Joseph M. Connors Definition Hodgkin’s lymphoma, formerly called Hodgkin’s disease, is one of the B-cell lymphomas. It has a characteristic neoplastic cell, the Reed-Sternberg cell, a distinct natural history, and most importantly, an excellent response to treatment, with the large […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Section XV – Oncology Chapter 185 – EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CANCER Michael J. Thun EPIDEMIOLOGY Prevalence Collectively, all cancers combined account for about 23% of deaths in the United States, thereby placing cancer second only to heart disease as a cause of death. Although the age-standardized death rate […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier SCREENING FOR EARLY DISEASE OR ASYMPTOMATIC RISK FACTORS Every year, new screening tests are introduced and marketed on the basis of their ability to detect unrecognized diseases or risk factors for disease. Other conditions need to be fulfilled for a screening test […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 13 – THE PERIODIC HEALTH EXAMINATION David Atkins An increasingly important part of adult primary health care is primary and secondary prevention ( Chapter 12 ). The traditional concept of an annual visit structured around a physical examination and a standard battery of screening […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier TRANSFUSION Worldwide, more than 75 million units of whole blood are estimated to be donated every year. In the United States, the yearly transfusion of more than 13 million units corresponds to transfusion of 1 unit of blood every 0.39 second. Blood […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 180 – HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS: COAGULATION FACTOR DEFICIENCIES Craig M. Kessler    COAGULATION DEFICIENCIES Severe coagulation deficiencies, or coagulopathies, typically are characterized by the development of excessive bleeding or bruising that is unprovoked or, more commonly, is precipitated by trivial incidental or surgical trauma. Frequently, […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 179 – HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS: ABNORMALITIES OF PLATELET AND VASCULAR FUNCTION Robert McMillan Definition Hemostasis, which is the body’s response to vascular damage, includes several sequential processes: adhesion of platelets to the site of injury, platelet activation and aggregation, formation of a platelet plug, and […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 176 – EOSINOPHILIC SYNDROMES Marc E. Rothenberg Definition Eosinophilic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of disorders that involve eosinophilia, which is defined as the accumulation of eosinophils in peripheral blood or tissues, or both. Circulating eosinophils normally account for only 1 to 3% of […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 170 – MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIAS Aśok C. Antony Definition Megaloblastic anemias, a group of disorders characterized by a distinct morphologic pattern in hematopoietic cells, are commonly due to deficiency of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) or folates. Folates and cobalamin are both required to sustain one-carbon metabolism, […]

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