Posts Tagged ‘HIV’

LEUKOCYTES Leukocytes (white blood cells) belong to at least five different categories (see Fig. 4.12), and are distinguishable by their size, nuclear shape and cytoplasmic inclusions. In practice, leukocytes are often divided into two main groups, namely those with prominent stainable cytoplasmic granules, the granulocytes, and those without. Granulocytes This group consists of eosinophil granulocytes, […]

CELL DIFFERENTIATION As the embryo develops, its cells pass through a series of changes in gene expression, reflected in alterations of cell structure and behaviour. They begin to diversify, separating first into two main tissue arrangements, epithelium and embryonic mesenchyme, then into more restricted subtypes of tissue, until finally they mature into cells of their […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier LABORATORY EVALUATION OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASE The most common presentation of musculoskeletal disease is pain in and around a joint in association with functional impairment. Collectively, diseases causing joint symptoms are called arthritis, implying inflammation. The extent of inflammation in these diseases varies […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier SUGGESTED READINGS   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: U.S. Public Health Service Recommendations for the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV-1 Transmission in the United States. Available at www.aidsinfo.nih.gov. Reviews current […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 260 – HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS IN PREGNANCY Stephen A. Spector Epidemiology The World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that by the end of 2004 approximately 40 million people were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, including […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier    REFERENCES 1. Shapiro DE, Sperling RS, Mandelbrot L, et al: Risk factors for perinatal human immunodeficiency virus transmission in patients receiving zidovudine prophylaxis: Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 Study Group.  Obstet Gynecol  1999; 94:897-908. 2. Connor EM, Sperling RS, Gelber R, et al: Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier LIFESPAN GROUPS Many of the important health issues in women have their onset or greatest impact at certain ages and are intricately linked with women’s psychosocial and sexual development. To develop a more integrated concept of women’s health, it is instructive to […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier PRIMARY PREVENTION GUIDELINES IN NONPREGNANT WOMEN Many of the conditions that cause the greatest morbidity and mortality in women can be prevented or delayed by the early recognition and treatment of risk factors and the identification of individuals who might benefit the […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN WOMEN Mortality At the turn of the 20th century, the average lifespan of women in the United States was 48 years, compared with 46 years in men. Since then, the life expectancy in women has increased more than […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 253 – THE TESTIS AND MALE SEXUAL FUNCTION   Ronald S. Swerdloff   Christina Wang   The testis is a bifunctional organ serving as the site of sex steroid (i.e., testosterone) synthesis and sperm production in the male. Thus, the testis controls both sexuality and the perpetuity […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Section XIX – Women’s Health Chapter 254 – APPROACH TO WOMEN’S HEALTH Janet B. Henrich Women’s health has emerged as a rapidly expanding field of scientific inquiry and knowledge with important implications for clinical practice and for the education and training of physicians. Women’s health can be […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier INDIVIDUAL IMMUNOBIOLOGICS    Hepatitis A Two inactivated hepatitis A ( Chapter 151 ) vaccines are available in the United States. Seroconversion rates after a single dose of either vaccine in persons older than 1 year exceed 95%. Antibody levels shown to be […]

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