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Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 139 – FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS: IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME, DYSPEPSIA, AND NONCARDIAC CHEST PAIN Nicholas J. Talley In clinical practice, most patients with chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms do not have a structural or biochemical explanation identified by routine diagnostic tests. These patients are labeled […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 96 – ACUTE BRONCHITIS AND TRACHEITIS Richard P. Wenzel Definition The term acute bronchitis and tracheitis defines a self-limited (1 to 3 weeks) inflammation of the large airways of the lung that extends to the tertiary bronchi ( Fig. 96-1 ). In patients with […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 80 – OTHER PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASES Jeffrey W. Olin    LIVEDO RETICULARIS Livedo reticularis is characterized by a reticular, fishnet, or lacy pattern on the skin of the lower extremities and other parts of the body. This pattern is red or blue and is […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 78 – DISEASES OF THE AORTA Eric M. Isselbacher The aorta is composed of three tissue layers. The intima is a thin inner layer lined with endothelial cells. The middle layer, or media, is the thickest layer of the aortic wall and is composed […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 66 – ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION Ronald G. Victor Definition Across populations, the risks of heart disease and stroke increase continuously and logarithmically with increasing levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure at or above 115/75 mm Hg ( Fig. 66-1 ). Thus, the dichotomous separation […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier OTHER THERAPIES Phototherapy and Laser UV treatments are given with different wavelengths, depending on the condition and the response to treatment. Currently, clinicians use broad-band UVB (290 to 320 nm), narrow-band 311-nm UVB, PUVA (psoralen with UVA 320 to 400 nm), and […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 443 – NUTRITION- AND ALCOHOL-RELATED NEUROLOGIC DISORDERS John C.M. Brust Neurologic disease is associated with deficiency of certain nutrients. In developing countries, such deficiencies are usually the result of starvation or a restricted diet. In developed countries, the major causes are alcoholism ( Chapter […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 441 – RABIES Avindra Nath   Joseph R. Berger Definition Rabies is a viral infection with nearly worldwide distribution. It affects principally wild and domestic animals, but it also results in a devastating, almost invariably fatal encephalitis in humans. Rabies virus is a bullet-shaped, enveloped, single-stranded RNA […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 417 – NEUROLOGIC COMPLICATIONS OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION Joseph R. Berger   Avindra Nath The neurologic complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can affect any portion of the neuraxis. They can be broadly divided into two large groups: those that are the consequence of HIV […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier SUGGESTED READINGS Braitstein P, Brinkhof MW, Dabis F, et al: Mortality of HIV-1-infected patients in the first year of antiretroviral therapy: Comparison between low-income and high-income countries.  Lancet  2006; 367:817-824.Patients in resource-poor settings have increased mortality rates in the first months on therapy Hammer SM, Saag MS, Schechter M, et al: Treatment […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier THE GLOBAL RESPONSE At a 2001 special session of the United Nations General Assembly on AIDS, 189 nations agreed that AIDS was a national and interna-tional security issue of the highest priority. The representatives of these countries—and later the G8 leaders—signed a […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier GLOBAL STATISTICS By August 2006, approximately 65 million people had become infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic in 1981. Of these individuals, more than 27 million people had already died of AIDS, and it became ranked as one of […]

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