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Posts Tagged ‘Elsevier Inc’

GASTRIC ORIFICES Cardiac orifice and gastro-oesophageal junction The opening from the oesophagus into the stomach is the cardiac orifice (Fig. 65.1). It is typically situated to the left of the midline behind the seventh costal cartilage at the level of the eleventh thoracic vertebra. It is typically 10 cm from the anterior abdominal wall and […]

CHAPTER 65 – Abdominal oesophagus and stomach ABDOMINAL OESOPHAGUS The abdominal oesophagus is 1–2.5 cm in length, and is slightly broader at the cardiac orifice than the diaphragmatic aperture. It lies to the left of the midline and enters the abdomen through the oesophageal aperture (formed by the two diaphragmatic crura) opposite the level of the tenth […]

THE EFFECTS OF INJURY SPINAL CORD INJURY AND VERTEBRAL COLUMN INJURY In the assessment of a patient with spinal injury and neurological damage, it is important to remember that the level of cord and root injury will not coincide with that of the skeletal damage to the vertebral column. In estimating the vertebral levels of […]

VASCULAR SUPPLY OF SPINAL CORD, ROOTS AND NERVES ARTERIES The spinal cord, its roots and nerves are supplied with blood by both longitudinal and segmental vessels (Fig. 43.9). Three major longitudinal vessels, a single anterior and two posterior spinal arteries (each of which is sometimes doubled to pass on either side of the dorsal rootlets), […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier ULTRASONOGRAPHY In ultrasound imaging, sound waves are pulsed through tissues to obtain an image that can localize and characterize pathology. Through the years, resolution has increased markedly. Portable scanners are also being used, especially by nonradiologists. These units are less expensive. They […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY CT employs an x-ray source with multiple detectors housed in a circular gantry that rotates 360 degrees around the patient, who lies on a table surrounded by the gantry. The computer processes the data that is displayed tomographically and in […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier ARTHROGRAPHY Arthrography involves the intra-articular placement of a needle, followed by aspiration of joint fluid and injection of a contrast agent to enhance imaging. It is often performed to exclude the possibility of infection in patients with hip pain or in those […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier SCINTIGRAPHY Scintigraphy employs detectors in the form of a gamma camera that can identify decay of intravenously injected radioactive isotopes. Bone scintigraphy is used to identify sites of activity in the rheumatic diseases. The bone scan employs 99m technetium methylene diphosphate (Tc99m-MDP) […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier SUGGESTED READINGS Adler RS, Finzel KC: The complementary roles of MR imaging and ultrasound of tendons. Radiol Clin North Am 2005; 43:771-807.Provides indications and features of ultrasound and MRI for tendon evaluation American College of Rheumatology Extremity Magnetic Resonance Imaging Task Force: Extremity magnetic resonance imaging in […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 280 – CONNECTIVE TISSUE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION   Richard F. Loeser   Connective tissue forms the architectural framework of the musculoskeletal system and serves as a scaffold that supports various organs and tissues. Many important structures within the body are composed primarily of connective […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier SUGGESTED READINGS Linnik MD, Hu JZ, Heilbrunn KR, et al: Relationship between anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies and exacerbation of renal disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52:1129-1137.Increases in anti-DNA antibodies were associated with flares of renal disease Manzi S, Navratil JS, Ruffing MJ, et al: Measurement of erythrocyte C4d […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier LABORATORY EVALUATION OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASE The most common presentation of musculoskeletal disease is pain in and around a joint in association with functional impairment. Collectively, diseases causing joint symptoms are called arthritis, implying inflammation. The extent of inflammation in these diseases varies […]

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