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Posts Tagged ‘CT’

Gray’s Anatomy, 40th Edition By Susan Standring, PhD, DSc, FKC A universal landmark in medicine ever since Drs. Henry Gray and H.V. Carter published the first edition in 1858, Gray’s Anatomy now celebrates its 150th anniversary! Book features: Completely re-imaged, full-colored art program Meticulously enhanced and updated artwork throughout, with 1,800 images now in full […]

PERIRENAL FASCIA The perirenal fascia is a dense, elastic connective tissue sheath which envelops each kidney and suprarenal gland together with a layer of surrounding perirenal fat (Fig. 74.4A,B; see Fig. 62.1). The kidney and its vessels are embedded in perirenal fat, which is thickest at the renal borders and extends into the renal sinus […]

CHAPTER 74 – Kidney and ureter KIDNEY The kidneys excrete the end products of metabolism and excess water. These actions are essential for the control of concentrations of various substances in the body, maintaining electrolyte and water balance approximately constant in the tissue fluids. The kidneys also have endocrine functions, producing and releasing erythropoietin, which affects red […]

VASCULAR SUPPLY AND LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE Renal arteries The paired renal arteries take about 20% of the cardiac output to supply organs that represent less than one-hundredth of total body weight. They branch laterally from the aorta just below the origin of the superior mesenteric artery (see Fig. 62.8; Fig. 74.10A). Both cross the corresponding crus […]

VASCULAR SUPPLY AND LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE Splenic artery The spleen is supplied exclusively from the splenic artery (see Fig. 70.7). This is the largest branch of the coeliac axis and its course is among the most tortuous in the body. From its origin the artery runs a little way inferiorly, then turns rapidly to the left […]

UNCINATE PROCESS The uncinate process of the pancreas extends from the inferior lateral end of the head of the gland (Fig. 70.5). Embryologically it is separate from the rest of the gland, and so it lies posterior to the superior mesenteric vein and occasionally the artery as they descend and run forward into the root […]

CHAPTER 70 – Pancreas The pancreas is the largest of the digestive glands and performs a range of both endocrine and exocrine functions. The major part of the gland is exocrine, secreting a range of enzymes involved in the digestion of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. The endocrine function of the pancreas is derived from cells scattered throughout […]

BODY The body of the pancreas is the longest portion of the gland and runs from the left side of the neck to the tail. It is slightly triangular in cross-section, becoming progressively thinner and less broad towards the tail. The body is described as having three surfaces, anterosuperior, posterior and anteroinferior. Anterosuperior surface The […]

FUNCTIONAL ANATOMICAL DIVISIONS Current understanding of the functional anatomy of the liver is based on Couinaud’s division of the liver into eight (subsequently nine) functional segments, based upon the distribution of portal venous branches and the location of the hepatic veins in the parenchyma (Couinaud 1957). Further understanding of the intrahepatic biliary anatomy, especially of […]

VASCULAR SUPPLY AND LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE Arteries The arterial supply of the descending colon is from the inferior mesenteric artery via its left colic branch, which also anastomoses with the marginal artery of the colon (in the region of the splenic flexure), and the sigmoid arteries (in the region of the junction with the sigmoid colon) […]

RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCES Cross-sectional imaging of the colon can be performed with computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On axial imaging the colon may be filled with particulate faeces and air (Fig. 67.10). The wall in normal individuals is thin. The caecum and ascending colon often contain faecal residue and are easily identified in […]

VASCULAR SUPPLY AND LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE Arteries Branches from the superior mesenteric artery supply the jejunum and ileum. The arteries divide as they approach the mesenteric border, giving off numerous branches which extend between the serosal and muscular layers, supplying the muscle and forming an intricate sub-mucosal plexus that supplies the glands and villi. Although there […]