Posts Tagged ‘CSF’

SPINA BIFIDA Spina bifida is the generic term for a range of discrete defects of neurulation and subsequent vertebral formation. The spectrum of neural tube and vertebral defects includes a range of open neural tube defects: craniorachischisis (non-fusion of the entire neural tube and no vertebral arch development); anencephaly (non-fusion of the rostal portion of […]

CLINICAL PROCEDURES ACCESS TO CEREBROSPINAL FLUID The safest approach to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is to enter the lumbar cistern of the subarachnoid space in the midline, well below the level at which the spinal cord normally terminates (see above). The fine needle employed is unlikely to damage the mobile nerve roots of the cauda […]

ACCESS TO THE EPIDURAL SPACE The epidural space lies between the spinal dura and the wall of the vertebral canal. It contains epidural fat and a venous plexus. Access to this space, usually in the lumbar region, is required for the administration of anaesthetic and analgesic drugs, and for endoscopy. The caudal route is used […]

ARACHNOID MATER The spinal arachnoid mater, which surrounds the spinal cord, is continuous with the cranial arachnoid mater (Fig. 43.3). It is closely applied to the deep aspect of the dura mater. At sites where vessels and nerves enter or leave the subarachnoid space, the arachnoid mater is reflected on to the surface of these […]

COVERINGS AND RELATIONS OF THE SPINAL ROOTS AND NERVES IN THE RADICULAR CANAL Tubular prolongations of the spinal dura mater, closely lined by the arachnoid, extend around the spinal roots and nerves as they pass through the lateral zone of the vertebral canal and through the intervertebral foramina (Fig. 43.3, Fig. 43.4A). These prolongations, the […]

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF) The cerebrospinal fluid is described in detail on page 242. Although there is free communication between the spinal and cerebral subarachnoid spaces, the mode of circulation of the spinal CSF and the contribution that it makes to the overall circulation of CSF remains uncertain in man: CSF may be absorbed from the […]

CHAPTER 43 – Spinal cord and spinal nerves: gross anatomy This chapter deals with the gross anatomy of the structures which lie within the vertebral canal and its extensions through the intervertebral foramina, the spinal nerve or radicular (‘root’) canals. The spinal cord, its blood vessels and nerve roots lie within a meningeal sheath, the theca, which […]

INTERMEDIATE LAYER In addition to the well-defined coats of arachnoid and pia mater, the cord is also surrounded by an extensive intermediate layer of leptomeninges. This layer is concentrated in the dorsal and ventral regions and forms a highly perforated, almost lace-like structure which is focally compacted to form the dorsal, dorsolateral and ventral ligaments […]

VERTEBRAL COLUMN The vertebral column is a curved linkage of individual bones or vertebrae (Fig. 42.10). A continuous series of vertebral foramina runs through the articulated vertebrae posterior to their bodies, and collectively constitutes the vertebral canal, which transmits and protects the spinal cord and nerve roots, their coverings and vasculature (Fig. 42.11, 42.16). A […]

MIDDLE EAR The middle ear is an irregular, laterally compressed space in the petrous part of the temporal bone. It is lined with mucous membrane and filled with air, which reaches it from the nasopharynx via the pharyngotympanic tube (Figs 36.6, 36.7, 36.9). The middle ear contains three small bones, the malleus, incus and stapes, […]

CUTANEOUS VASCULAR SUPPLY AND LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE Nasal skin receives its blood supply from branches of the facial, ophthalmic and infraorbital arteries. The alae and lower part of the nasal septum are supplied by lateral nasal and septal branches of the facial artery and the lateral aspects and dorsum of the nose are supplied by the […]

MENINGES Three concentric membranes, the meninges, envelop the brain and spinal cord. They provide support and protection for the delicate tissues they surround. The individual layers, in order from outside to inside, are the dura mater (pachymeninx), arachnoid mater and pia mater. The dura is an opaque, tough, fibrous coat which incompletely divides the cranial […]

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