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Answers to Quantitative & Multiple-Choice Questions CHAPTER 1 1 (C) 2 (E) 3 (D) 4 (E) 5 (C) 6 (E) 7 (B) 8 (B) 9 (D) 10 (E) 11 (B) 12 (C) 13 (B) 14 (E) 15 (B) 16 (E) 17 (B) 18 (A) 19 (C) 20 (D) 21 (G) 22 (L) 23 (G) 24 […]

CHAPTER 33 This chapter summarizes the cardiovascular adjustments that occur on assuming the upright position; during space flight; and during exercise. It also describes the pathophysiology of inflammation and of shock, including syncope (fainting). Hypertension, heart failure, and the cardiovascular compensations that occur in these conditions are also considered. The material in the chapter should […]

CHAPTER 34 This chapter is an analysis of the functions of the respiratory system, including the properties of gases, the way that the lungs and chest operate to produce inspiration and expiration, gas exchange in the lungs, the special features of the pulmonary circulation, lung defense mechanisms, and the metabolic functions of the lungs. The […]

CHAPTER 35 This chapter describes the flow of O2 from the lungs to the tissues and the flow of CO2 from the tissues to the lungs, with emphasis on the physical and chemical mechanisms that greatly augment the ability of the blood to carry O2 and CO2. The material in the chapter should help students […]

CHAPTER 36 This chapter is a review of the mechanisms that regulate respiration. These include the fundamental rhythm generator in the medulla oblongata; chemical control via the carotid and aortic chemoreceptors and the chemoreceptors located on the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata; and nonchemical control via inputs from other centers and receptors in the […]

CHAPTER 37 This chapter analyzes the changes in respiration that occur with exercise, during exposure to altitude, and in other forms of hypoxia, including hypoxia produced by various diseases. Hypercapnia and hypocapnia are also considered, along with increased barometric pressure, drowning, and artificial respiration. The material in the chapter should help students to— • Describe […]

CHAPTER 32 This chapter describes special aspects of the circulation of the brain including the blood-brain barrier, the heart, the splanchnic region (including the liver), the skin, and the fetus and placenta. The material in the chapter should help students to— • Give approximate values for blood flow per unit weight and blood flow per […]

CHAPTER 24 This chapter is concerned with renin and erythropoietin, two of the three hormones produced by the kidneys; with ANP, BNP, and CNP, the natriuretic peptides produced by the heart, the brain, and other tissues; and with melatonin, the pineal hormone. The material in the chapter should help students to— • Outline the cascade […]

CHAPTER 30 This chapter considers the blood vessels and lymphatics and the movement of fluids through them. It includes the functional anatomy of the vessels and vascular smooth muscle, the principles and forces that govern pressure and flow in them, and the factors affecting exchange across capillary walls. The material in the chapter should help […]

CHAPTER 28 This chapter is a review of the conduction system of the heart and the way the impulse that generates a normal heartbeat spreads from the SA node through the AV node, the bundle of His, and the Purkinje system to all parts of the ventricles. The genesis of the ECG, some of its […]

CHAPTER 31 This chapter reviews the local mechanisms, paracrine and endocrine humoral agents, and neural mechanisms that act together to maintain blood pressure and blood flow to the various organs at rest and during a wide variety of situations. The material in the chapter should help students to— • Define autoregulation, discuss its role in […]

CHAPTER 25 This chapter is concerned with digestion and absorption, and Chapter 26 deals with the details of how the gastrointestinal tract and its associated glands function to aid these processes. The material in Chapter 25 should help students to— • Name the principal digestive enzymes, their precursors, their substrates, and the products of the […]

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