Posts Tagged ‘AIDS’

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier SUGGESTED READINGS   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: U.S. Public Health Service Recommendations for the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV-1 Transmission in the United States. Available at www.aidsinfo.nih.gov. Reviews current […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 260 – HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS IN PREGNANCY Stephen A. Spector Epidemiology The World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that by the end of 2004 approximately 40 million people were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, including […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier LIFESPAN GROUPS Many of the important health issues in women have their onset or greatest impact at certain ages and are intricately linked with women’s psychosocial and sexual development. To develop a more integrated concept of women’s health, it is instructive to […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN WOMEN Mortality At the turn of the 20th century, the average lifespan of women in the United States was 48 years, compared with 46 years in men. Since then, the life expectancy in women has increased more than […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 234 – PROTEIN-ENERGY MALNUTRITION Samuel Klein Definition Normal nutritional status represents a healthy relationship between nutrient intake and nutrient requirements. An imbalance between intake and requirements over time can lead to malnutrition, manifested by alterations in intermediary metabolism, organ function, and body composition. The […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 180 – HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS: COAGULATION FACTOR DEFICIENCIES Craig M. Kessler    COAGULATION DEFICIENCIES Severe coagulation deficiencies, or coagulopathies, typically are characterized by the development of excessive bleeding or bruising that is unprovoked or, more commonly, is precipitated by trivial incidental or surgical trauma. Frequently, […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 173 – LEUKOPENIA AND LEUKOCYTOSIS Grover C. Bagby Jr. The normal peripheral white blood cell count ranges from 5.0 to 10.0 × 109/L, and a low total white blood cell count (<4.5 × 109/L) is known as leukopenia. When leukopenia is discovered, a most important […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 171 – APLASTIC ANEMIA AND RELATED DISORDERS Hugo Castro-Malaspina   Richard J. O’Reilly    APLASTIC ANEMIA Definition Aplastic anemia is a disorder of hematopoiesis characterized by pancytopenia and a marked reduction or depletion of erythroid, granulocytic, and megakaryocytic cells in bone marrow. Hematopoiesis ( Chapter 160 ) […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 150 – APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH JAUNDICE OR ABNORMAL LIVER TEST RESULTS Paul D. Berk   Kevin M. Korenblat Definition Jaundice, from the French jaune (yellow), is the yellow-orange discoloration of the skin, conjunctivae, and mucous membranes that results from elevated concentrations of bilirubin in plasma. […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 143 – APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH DIARRHEA AND MALABSORPTION Carol E. Semrad Don W. Powell Definitions Normal stool frequency ranges from three times a week to three times a day. Although individuals rarely cite increases in frequency alone as the definition of diarrhea, a […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier ESOPHAGITIS    Infectious Esophagitis    Pathobiology Infectious esophagitis occurs principally, but not exclusively, in immunocompromised patients, usually from cancer chemotherapy, post-transplant antirejection medication, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (especially with CD4 counts <200 mm3) ( Chapter 416 ). Candida albicans ( Chapter […]

Goldman: Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Copyright © 2007 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Chapter 90 – BRONCHIECTASIS, ATELECTASIS, CYSTS, AND LOCALIZED LUNG DISORDERS Alan F. Barker    BRONCHIECTASIS Definition Bronchiectasis is an acquired disorder of the major bronchi and bronchioles; it is characterized by permanent abnormal dilation and destruction of bronchial walls. The affected airways show a variety […]

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