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S-video connectors,
S.M.A.R.T. (Self Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology),
SafeAudio,
SafeDisc,
safety [See security.]
SAL (Soft Adjacent Layer) structure,
sampling, 2nd
Samsung,
SanDisk CompactFlash,
Sandra,
SASI (Shugart Associates System Interface),
SATA (Serial ATA), 2nd
     8B/10B encoding
     AHCI (Advanced Host Controller Interface)
     ATA-8 standard
     backward compatibility
     BIOS setup
     data connector pinouts
     differential NRZ (nonreturn to zero)
     HighPoint RocketHead 100 converter
     power connectors 2nd
     Serial ATA International Organization
     Serial ATA Workgroup
     Serial ATA Working Group
     standards
     transfer modes
satellite-based Internet access
     DirecWAY
     performance
     StarBand
SC242 slots,
SC330 slots,
scalable link interface (SLI),
scan codes,
scan conversion,
scan-line interfacing (SLI),
scanning frequency,
ScanSoft,
SCAT (Single Chip AT) chipsets,
scratchy sound, troubleshooting,
screens [See monitors.]
screwdrivers, 2nd
screws
     hard disk drives
     Phillips-head screws
     slotted-head screws
     thumb screws
     Torx screws 2nd
scroll wheels (mouse),
Scrollpoint Pro,
SCSI (small computer system interface)
     adapters 2nd
     CD/DVD drivers
     controllers
     diagnostic software
     low-level drive formatting
     optical drive installation
         card edge connectors
         chains
         controllers
         external drives
         internal drives
         jumper settings
         ribbon cables
SCSISelect,
Scythe Ninj,
SD (SecureDigital),
SD (Super Density) disks,
SDRAM (synchronous DRAM), 2nd 3rd
SDSL (symmetrical DSL),
Seagate Technology
     Cheetah 36ES
     Cheetah X15
     contact information
     low-level formatting software
     website
sealing CD/DVD drives,
SEC (single edge contact) packaging,
     Pentium II processors
     Pentium II/III Xeon processors
SEC-DED (single-bit error-correction double-bit error detection),
SECAM (Sequential Couleur Avec Memoire),
SECC (single edge contact cartridge 2) packaging,
     OLGA (organic land grid array) packaging
     Pentium III
     PLGA (plastic land grid array) packaging
second-generation processors,
     80287 math coprocessor
     addressable memory
     APIC (advanced programmable interrupt controller)
     BF pins
     bus widths
     clock multipliers
     overclocking
     packaging
     protected mode
     real mode
     speeds 2nd
     transistors
secondary cache [See Level 2 cache,.]
Secondary master hard disk fail (error message),
secondary monitors,
Secondary slave hard disk fail (error message),
SECTOR NUMBER sector data,
sectors, 2nd [See also sectors,.]
     CD-ROMs 2nd
     CHS (cylinder head sector)
         137GB barrier
         2.1GB barrier
         4.2GB barrier
         528MB barrier
         8.4GB barrier
         ATA CHS parameter limits
         BIOS CHS parameter limits
         BIOS commands
         CHS bit-shift translation
         combined parameter limits
         compared to LBA (logical block address)
         converting to LBA (logical block address)
         LBA-assist translation
         Standard CHS
     data bytes
     defined
     DVD discs
     errors
     fields
     gaps in
     headers/trailers
     LBA (logical block address)
         BIOS commands
         compared to CHS (cylinder head sector)
         converting to CHS (cylinder head sector)
         LBA-assist translation
     numbering
     prefixes for decimal/binary multiples
     typical track/sector format
     usable space
SecureDigital (SD),
security
     ATA
         HPAs (host protected areas)
         Security Mode
     BIOS
     broadband Internet access
     CATV networks
     CD-ROM copy protection 2nd
         SafeAudio
         SafeDisc
     DSL (digital subscriber line)
     DVD copy protection
         APS (analog protection system)
         CSS (content scramble system)
         RPC (regional playback control)
     extranets
     floppy disks
     Intel RNG (Random Number Generator)
     intranets
     networks
     power-protection systems
         backup power
         built-in power protection
         line conditioners
         phone line surge protectors
         surge protectors
     war driving
     Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)
Security menu (BIOS),
Security Option setting (BIOS),
seek times
     average seek times
     hard disk drives
self-cleaning lenses,
self-identifying peripherals,
Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology (SMART), 2nd
self-powered hubs,
Selker, Ted,
semiconductors, 2nd
Sempron (Socket 754) processors,
Sempron (Socket A) processors,
Semtech,
Sensaura 3D positional audio technology (3DPA),
SEP (single edge processor) packaging,
Sequential Couleur Avec Memoire (SECAM),
Serial ATA [See SATA (Serial ATA),.]
Serial ATA Controller setting (BIOS),
serial mouse,
serial numbers (Intel),
Serial port A setting (BIOS),
serial presence detect (SPD),
serial-bus architectures
     advantages of
     IEEE 1394
         1394a standard
         1394b standard
         cables
         chipsets
         compared to USB
         device connections
         hot-plugging
         signaling rates
         topology
    USB (universal serial bus) [See USB (universal serial bus),.]
Series A connectors,
Series B connectors,
SERs (soft error rates) [See soft memory errors,.]
servers, 2nd
servo mechanisms
     dedicated servo
     disk sweep
     embedded servo
     gray code
     servowriters
     thermal recalibration
     wedge servo
servowriters,
set associative cache,
setting up [See configuration.]
Settings tab (Display Control Panel),
Setup program (BIOS),
     accessing
     additional setup features
     Advanced menu
     ATA Configuration menu
     ATA RAID Controller feature
     Boot Configuration menu
     Boot Device Priority menu
     Boot menu
     Boot Up Floppy Seek feature
     Boot Up System Speed feature
     CPU Clock Multiplier feature
     CPU Frequency feature
     CPU Hyper-threading feature
     CPU Internal Cache/External Cache feature
     CPU Vcore Setting feature
     Event Logging menu
     Exit menu
     Extended Configuration menu 2nd
     Fan Control Configuration menu
     Floppy Configuration menu
     Gate A20 Option feature
     HDD S.M.A.R.T. Capability feature
     IEEE-1394a Port feature
     main menu
     Maintenance menu
     numeric keypads
     Operating Frequency feature
     overclocking/burn-in test features
     PC Health feature
     PCI Configuration menu
     Peripheral Configuration menu
     PnP Configuration menu
     Power menu
     PS/2 Mouse Function Control feature
     Quick Power On Self Test feature
     Report No FDD For WIN 95 feature
     Resource Configuration menu
     ROM Shadowing feature
     running 2nd
     Security menu
     Security Option feature
     Serial ATA Controller feature
     summary of menus
     Swap Floppy Drive feature
     Typematic Delay feature
     Typematic Rate feature
     Typematic Rate Setting feature
     USB Configuration menu
     Video Configuration menu
     Virus Warning feature
seventh-generation processors [See Pentium 4 processors,.]
SFX power supply,
SFX12V power supply,
SGI OpenGL,
SGRAM (synchronous graphics RAM),
shading,
shadow masks, 2nd
shadowing ROM (read-only memory), 2nd
sharing [See also networking.]
     intelligent sharing
     Internet connections
         gateways
         proxy servers
         routers
         troubleshooting
     interrupts
     memory
     tips and tricks
shielded twisted pair (STP) cables,
Shields Up service,
Shoch, John,
Shockley, William, 2nd
Shugart Associates System Interface (SASI), 2nd
Shugart, Alan, 2nd
shutdown,
signal-to-noise ratio (SNR),
signals
     ATA (AT Attachment)
     connectors
     Disk Change
     jitter
     keyboard connector signals
     Power_Good
     PS_ON 2nd
     signal boosters
     signal lights (broadband devices)
     skew
     SNR (signal-to-noise ratio)
Silicon Image,
Silicon Integrated Systems [See SiS (Silicon Integrated Systems).]
silicon on insulator (SOI),
silicon,
silicone lubricants,
SIMD Pentium-MMX processors,
SIMMs (single inline memory modules),
     buying tips
     illustration
     installation 2nd
     memory banks
     pinouts
     presence detect pin configurations
     width
Single Chip AT (SCAT) chipsets,
single edge contact [See SEC (single edge contact) packaging,.]
single edge contact cartridge 2 [See single edge contact cartridge 2.]
single edge processor (SEP) package,
single inline memory modules [See SIMMs (single inline memory modules),.]
single-bit error-correction double-bit error detection (SEC-DED),
single-board computers,
single-gap heads,
single-plane power design,
single-sided memory modules,
singleword DMA (direct memory access),
SiS (Silicon Integrated Systems)
     chipsets
         3D chipsets
         Athlon/Duron chipsets
         Intel/AMD chipsets
         MuTIOL architecture
         P6-class chipsets
         Pentium 4 (Socket 775) chipsets
         Pentium 4 chipsets
         Pentium D chipsets
         SiS645/645DX
         SiS648/648FX
         SiS649/SiS649FX
         SiS650/651
         SiS655/655FX/655TX
         SiS656
         SiS661GX/SiS661FX
         SiS730S
         SiS733
         SiS735
         SiS740
         SiS741/741GX
         SiS745
         SiS746
         SiS746FX
         SiS748
         SiS755/755FX
         SiS756
         SiS760/760GX
         SiS761GL/761GX
         SiS963L
         SiSR658/R659
     contact information
SiSoftware Sandra,
sixth generation processors [See P6 (686) processors.]
size
     Baby-AT motherboards
     FlexATX motherboards
     hard disk drive platters
     monitors
     NLX motherboards
     peer-to-peer networks
     video monitors
     WTX motherboards
skew (signals),
skins (keyboard),
slaves, 2nd
sleep feature (speakers),
SLI (scalable link interface),
SLI (scan-line interfacing),
sliders (head),
slimline cases,
Slimline power supply,
Slot 1 slots (SC242),
Slot 2 slots (SC330),
slot load mechanism (CD/DVD drives),
slots, 2nd 3rd [See also I/O buses (expansion slots).]
     Slot 1 (SC242)
     Slot 2 (SC330)
     specifications 2nd
slotted masks,
slotted-head screws,
SLR drives,
SMART (Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology),
SmartMedia,
SMI (System Management Interrupt),
SMM (system management mode),
     486SL processors
     Cyrix 6×86/6x86MX processors
snooping (bus),
SNR (signal-to-noise ratio),
sockets,
     chips, reseating
     Socket 1
     Socket 2
     Socket 3
     Socket 370 (PGA-370) 2nd 3rd
     Socket 4
     Socket 423
     Socket 462
     Socket 478 2nd
     Socket 5
     Socket 6
     Socket 603
     Socket 7/Super7 2nd
     Socket 754
     Socket 8
     Socket 939
     Socket 940
     Socket A (Socket 462)
     Socket M2
     Socket T (LGA775) 2nd
     specifications 2nd
     ZIF (zero insertion force) 2nd
Soft Adjacent Layer (SAL) structure,
soft error rates (SERs), 2nd
soft memory errors,
     alpha particles
     cosmic rays
     heat buildup
     incorrect memory types
     line noise
     parity checking
         chipset support
         disabling
         fake parity modules
         NMIs (nonmaskable interrupts)
         odd parity
         parity bits
         parity-check messages
     power glitches
     radio frequency interference
     static discharge
Soft Power, 2nd
software [See also utilities.]
     32-bit
     acceleration
     copyrights
     diagnostic software
         aftermarket software
         general-purpose diagnostics
         manufacturer-supplied software
         network interface adapters
         operating system diagnostics
         operating system software
         peripheral diagnostics software
         POST (power on self test)
         SCSI (small computer system interface) adapters
     DisplayMate
     firmware
     HWinfo
     industry control
     networking requirements
     networking software
         configuration
         installation
         troubleshooting
     resources
     reverse-engineering
     Sandra
     troubleshooting
     voice recognition
     WinGate
     WinProxy
SOI (silicon on insulator),
Solid State Floppy Disk Forum,
SONICblue,
Sony,
     CD-ROM design and development
     contact information
     Memory Stick
     SPDIF in/out sound card connectors
     Trinitron picture tubes
sound [See audio,; sound cards.]
Sound Blaster
     history of
     Sound Blaster Audigy
     Sound Blaster Pro
     Sound Blaster X-Fi Elite Pro 2nd
sound cards [See also audio,.]
     3D audio
         DirectX support
         positional audio
         processing
     AdLib
     Aureal
     AV-710
     buying tips
     CA0102 (Audigy 2)
     CA0102-ICT (Audigy 2 ZS)
     CA0186
     CAO185
     comparison of features
     connectors
         aux in
         CD SPDIF in/out
         digital DIN out
         game port
         I2S in
         IEEE-1394
         internal CD-audio
         line-in
         line-out
         MIDI
         mono-in
         optical SPDIF in/out
         rear-out
         SPDIF in/out
         TAD (Telephone Answering Device) in
         USB (Universal Serial Bus) port
     data compression
         ADPCM (Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation)
         MPEG (Motion Pictures Expert Group)
     defined
     DirectX
     discontinued sound cards
     drivers
     DSPs (digital signal processors)
     DVD support
     EMU-8000
     EMU10K1
     EMU10K2 (Audigy)
     Ensoniq ES137x series
     frequency response
     game playing
     history of
     installing
     integrated audio chipsets
         AC’97 integrated audio
         AOpen TubeSound
     manufacturers
         Aureal
         Creative Labs
         Oak Technology
         Philips
         Trident
         Yamaha
     MIDI support
     monophonic/stereophonic
     Philips
     resource conflicts 2nd
     sampling
     SNR (signal-to-noise ratio)
     Sound Blaster
         history of
         Sound Blaster Audigy
         Sound Blaster Pro
         Sound Blaster X-Fi Elite Pro 2nd
     sound production features
     sound properties
     speaker connections 2nd
     stereo system connections
     total harmonic distortion
     troubleshooting
         advanced features
         Chipset Setup options
         lockups
         low volume
         no sound
         one-sided sound
         parity errors
         resource conflicts
         scratchy sound
         startup problems
     USB-based audio processors
     Vibra-16
     voice recognition 2nd
     volume control
     X-Fi (Extreme Fidelity)
     Yamaha
South Bridge chipsets,
     AMD-766
     Apollo KT133
     Apollo KT133A
     Apollo KX133
     nForce chipsets
     Radeon
     SiS963L
     ULi chipsets
     ULiMagic1
     VIA chips 2nd 3rd
SOYO Tek, Inc.,
SPD (serial presence detect),
SPDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interface) in/out sound card connectors,
speakers
     AC adapters
     amplification
     buying tips 2nd
     connecting 2nd
     DBB (dynamic bass boost)
     frequency response
     headphones
     interference
     magnetic shielding
     sleep feature
     surround sound
     total harmonic distortion
     troubleshooting
     typical speaker setup
     volume control
     watts
Specialized Products Company,
speculative execution, 2nd
speed
     broadband Internet access
     broadband modems
     cache
     CD/DVD drives
         access times
         buffers/cache
         CD-R
         CD-ROM
         CD-RW
         CPU utilization
         data transfer rates
         DMA (Direct Memory Access)
     CLKMUL (clock multiplier)
     DVD drives
     hard disk drives
         access times
         average seek times
         cache controllers
         cache programs
         interleave
         latency
         transfer rates
     math coprocessors
     memory
         clock speeds
         cycle times
         DDR SDRAM (double data rate SDRAM)
         DDR2 SDRAM (double data rate SDRAM)
         interleaving
         latency
         memory bus bandwidth
         MHz (megahertz)
         module speeds
         nanoseconds
         processor bus bandwidth
         RDRAM (Rambus DRAM)
         SDRAM (synchronous DRAM)
     motherboards
         AMD P-Ratings
         Cyrix P-Ratings
         processor overclocking
         setting
     NICs (network interface cards)
     overclocking
         bus speeds and multipliers
         defined
         history of
         modern PC clocks
         overclocking tips
         quartz crystals
     processors
         386DX
         486
         486DX
         486SX
         80286
         8088
         Am5x86(TM)-P75
         AMD P-Ratings
         comparing systems
         cycles
         Cyrix 6×86/6x86MX
         Cyrix P-Ratings
         Cyrix/TI 486
         detecting
         DX2/OverDrive
         DX4
         iCOMP 2.0 index ratings
         iCOMP 3.0 index ratings
         instruction execution times
         Intel ratings
         maximum 2nd
         MHz
         motherboard speeds
         overclocking
         Pentium
         Pentium 4 SYSmark 2002 ratings
         Pentium 4 SYSmark 2004 ratings
         Pentium II
         Pentium III
         Pentium Pro
         Pentium-MMX
         wait states
     USB (universal serial bus)
     video RAM
speed locking,
SpeedGuide.net,
SPGA (staggered pin grid array), 2nd
spills on keyboards, cleaning,
spin rates,
spin-coating process (CD-R),
spin-valve heads,
spindle motors, 2nd
Spindle Synchronization (SPSYNC) signals,
SpinRite,
Spitfire [See Duron processors.]
splash screens,
split-plane power designs,
Splitterless DSL (digital subscriber line),
splitters,
SPPs (system platform processors),
SPS (standby power supply),
SPSYNC (Spindle Synchronization) signals,
sputtered thin-film recording media,
sputtering, 2nd
SRAM (static RAM) [See also cache,.]
     access times
     asynchronous design
     cache controllers
     cache hit ratio
     compared to DRAM
     Level 1 cache
     Level 2 cache
     Level 3 cache
     maximum cache
     pipeline burst mode
     synchronous design
SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions),
ST-506/412 MFM controllers,
Stabilant 22a, 2nd
stackable hubs,
stackable switches,
staggered pin grid array (SPGA),
standard chemical cleaners,
Standard CHS (cylinder head sector),
standard parallel ports,
standard recording,
standby power supply,
Standby state (APM),
Star computers, 2nd
star topology,
StarBand,
start-stop communications,
StartBIOS command,
startup,
states (APM),
Static Column memory,
static electricity, 2nd
static RAM [See SRAM (static RAM).]
static-filled sound, troubleshooting,
status codes (CMOS RAM),
Steering (IRQ), 2nd 3rd
stencil buffering,
stepper motors, 2nd
steppers,
steppings
     Pentium
     Pentium 4 2nd
     Pentium II
     Pentium III
     Pentium-MMX
stereo systems
     connecting to sound cards
     tape monitors
stereophonic sound cards [See sound cards.]
stop bits,
STOP errors,
StopBIOS command,
storage [See discs; drives; flash memory,; floppy disks.]
stored-program technique,
STP (shielded twisted pair) cables,
STPCLK# pin,
strain gauge,
streams
     HyperStreaming
     Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE)
     StreamThru architecture
strings, BIOS ID,
     AMI Hi-Flex BIOS
     AMI Hi-Flex BIOS String 2
     AMI Hi-Flex BIOS String 3
     older AMI BIOS versions
     viewing
stripe pitch,
striping disks,
subcode bytes,
subdividing hard disks drives [See partitioning hard disk drives,.]
subpixels (LCDs),
substrate material,
Super Density (SD) disks,
Super I/O chips, 2nd 3rd
Super Socket 7 sockets,
Super Video CDs,
Super Video Graphics Array [See SVGA (Super VGA) video adapters,.]
Super-IPS (in-place switching),
Super7 sockets,
Superchips,
Supermicro Computer, Inc.,
superparamagnetic effect, 2nd
superscalar architecture, 2nd 3rd
supertiling,
surge protectors,
surround sound,
Suspend state (APM),
SVGA (Super VGA) video adapters,
     pinouts
     VESA (Video Electronics Standards Assocation) standards
swabs,
Swap Floppy Drive setting (BIOS),
switches
     address storing
     buying tips
     compared to hubs
     dual-speed
     front panel AC switches
     front panel motherboard-controlled
     integral AC switches
     placement of
     ports
     stackable
switching power supply, 2nd 3rd
symmetric multiprocessing,
symmetrical DSL (SDSL),
SYNC BYTE sector data,
synchronous cache design,
synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), 2nd 3rd
synchronous graphics RAM (SGRAM),
synchronous math coprocessors,
SYSmark ratings,
system assembly, 2nd
     BIOS Setup program
     cables
     cases
         cover assembly
         desktop
         form factors
         mini-tower
         mounting motherboards in
         tower
     CD-ROM drives
     cooling fans
         bay-mounted fans
         built-in fans
     documentation of physical configuration
     ESD (electrostatic discharge) protection
     expansion cards
     external cables
     floppy disk drives 2nd
     hard disk drives
         buying tips
         capacity
         installation
     hardware resources
     heatsinks
         active heatsinks
         passive heatsinks
     input devices
     miscellaneous hardware
     monitors
     motherboards
         BIOS (basic input/output system)
         cables
         chipsets
         Desktop Form Factors website
         integrated adapters
         jumpers
         memory 2nd
         mounting in case
         ports
         processors 2nd
     operating system installation
         CD-ROM drivers
         device drivers
         drive formatting
         drive partitions
     optical drives
     power supply
         choosing
         connecting
     preparation
     removable drives
     required components
     required tools
     software resources
     sound cards
     speakers
     troubleshooting
     video adapters 2nd
     white box components
system backups,
System BIOS Cacheable setting (BIOS),
system boards [See motherboards,.]
system boot process
     booting from CD-ROM
     DOS
     operating system independent
         central hardware test
         cold starts
         MBR (master boot record)
         Plug and Play BIOS
         POST (power on self test) 2nd
         ROM BIOS
         sector errors
         VBR (volume boot record)
         video ROM scan
         warm starts
     troubleshooting
     Windows 9x/Me
         IO.SYS file
         real-mode configuration
         WIN.COM file
     Windows NT/2000/XP
system disassembly,
system lockups,
System Management Interrupt (SMI),
system management mode [See SMM (system management mode),.]
system memory [See RAM (random access memory),.]
system platform processors (SPPs),
system resource conflicts,
     Device Manager
     multiple-COM-port adapters
     NICs (network interface cards)
     PnP (Plug and Play)
     preventing
     resolving manually
     SCSI adapter boards
     sound cards
     system-configuration templates
     USB (Universal Serial Bus)
     video software
System Restore,
system-configuration templates,

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