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Ranges of Normal Values in Human Whole Blood (B), Plasma (P), or Serum (S)1
  Normal Value
(Varies With Procedure Used)
Determination Traditional Units SI Units
Acetoacetate plus acetone (S) 0.3-2.0 mg/dL 3-20 mg/L
Aldosterone (supine) (P) 3.0-10 ng/dL 83-227 pmol/L
Alpha-amino nitrogen (P) 3.0-5.5 mg/dL 2.1-3.9 mmol/L
Alanine aminotransferase 3-48 units/L  
Aspartate aminotransferase 0-55 units/L  
Ammonia (B) 12-55 μmol/L 12-55 μmol/L
Amylase (S) 53-123 units/L 884-2050 nmol·s-1/L
Ascorbic acid (B) 0.4-1.5 mg/dL (fasting) 23-85 μmol/L
Bilirubin (S) Conjugated (direct): up to 0.4 mg/dL Up to 7 μmol/L
  Total (conjugated plus free): up to 1.0 mg/dL Up to 17 μmol/L
Calcium (S) 8.5-10.5 mg/dL; 4.3-5.3 meq/L 2.1-2.6 mmol/L
Carbon dioxide content (S) 24-30 meq/L 24-30 mmol/L
Carotenoids (S) 0.8-4.0 μg/mL 1.5-7.4 μmol/L
Ceruloplasmin (S) 23-43 mg/dL 240-430 mg/L
Chloride (S) 100-108 meq/L 100-108 mmol/L
Cholesterol (S)
Cholesteryl esters (S) 60-70% of total cholesterol  
Copper (total) (S) 70-155 μg/dL 11.0-24.4 μmol/L
Cortisol (P) (AM, fasting) 5-25 μg/dL 0.14-0.69 μmol/L
Creatinine (P) 0.6-1.5 mg/dL 53-133 μmol/L
Glucose, fasting (P) 70-110 mg/dL 3.9-6.1 mmol/L
Iron (S) 50-150 μg/dL 9.0-26.9 μmol/L
Lactic acid (B) 0.5-2.2 meq/L 0.5-2.2 mmol/L
Lipase (S) 3-19 units/L  
Lipids, total (S) 450-1000 mg/dL 4.5-10 g/dL
Magnesium (S) 1.4-2.0 meq/L 0.7-1.0 mmol/L
Osmolality (S) 280-296 mosm/kg H2O 280-296 mmol/kg H2O
PCO2 (arterial) (B) 35-45 mm Hg 4.7-6.0 kPa
Pepsinogen (P) 200-425 units/mL  
pH (B) 7.35-7.45  
Phenylalanine (S) 0-2 mg/dL 0-120 μmol/L
Phosphatase, acid (S) Males: 0-0.8 sigma unit/mL  
  Females: 0.01-0.56 sigma unit/mL  
Phosphatase, alkaline (S) 13-39 units/L (adults) 0.22-0.65 μmol·s-1/L
Phospholipids (S) 9-16 mg/dL as lipid phosphorus 2.9-5.2 mmol/L
Phosphorus, inorganic (S) 2.6-4.5 mg/dL (infants in first year: up to 6.0 mg/dL) 0.84-1.45 mmol/L
PO2 (arterial) (B) 75-100 mm Hg 10.0-13.3 kPa
Potassium (S) 3.5-5.0 meq/L 3.5-5.0 mmol/L
Total (S) 6.0-8.0 g/dL 60-80 g/L
Albumin (S) 3.1-4.3 g/dL 31-43 g/L
Globulin (S) 2.6-4.1 g/dL 26-41 g/L
Pyruvic acid (P) 0-0.11 meq/L 0-110 μmol/L
Sodium (S) 135-145 meq/L 135-145 mmol/L
Urea nitrogen (S) 8-25 mg/dL 2.9-8.9 mmol/L
Uric acid (S)    
Women 2.3-6.6 mg/dL 137-393 μmol/L
Men 3.6-8.5 mg/dL 214-506 μmol/L
1 Based in part on Kratz A, Lewandrowski KB: Normal reference laboratory values. N Engl J Med 1998;339:1063. See also Table 27-1: Normal values for cellular elements in human blood; and Table 32-2: Concentrations of various substances in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. Ranges vary somewhat from one laboratory to another depending on the details of the methods used, and specific values should be considered in the context of the range of values for the laboratory that made the determination.

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