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R658/R659 chipsets (SiS),
Radeon chipsets,
radio frequency (RF)
     input devices
     interference 2nd 3rd
RAID (redundant array of independent disks),
RAM (random access memory), [See also ROM BIOS (basic input/output system),.]
     286 processors
     386 processors
     386SX processors
     486DX processors
     8088/8086 processors
     adapter memory configuration
     ATX motherboards
     banks 2nd
     BEDO RAM (burst extended data out RAM)
     buffers
         buffer underruns
         buffered modules
     buying tips
     cache 2nd
         access times
         asynchronous design
         bus snooping
         cache controllers
         CD/DVD drives
         compared to DRAM
         controllers
         defined 2nd
         direct-mapped cache
         four-way set associative cache
         fully associative mapped cache
         hard disk drive cache controllers
         hit ratio
         Level 1 cache 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th
         Level 2 cache 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th
         Level 3 cache 2nd
         maximum cache
         nonblocking cache
         Pentium-MMX improvements
         pipeline burst mode
         set associative cache
         speed
         synchronous design
         TLB (translation lookaside buffer)
         write-back cache
         write-through cache
     CMOS RAM
         accessing
         additional setup features
         addresses
         Advanced menu
         ATA Configuration menu
         backing up
         Boot Configuration menu
         Boot Device Priority menu
         Boot menu
         compared to BIOS
         diagnostic status codes
         Event Logging menu
         Exit menu
         Extended Configuration menu 2nd
         Fan Control Configuration menu
         Floppy Configuration menu
         main menu
         Maintenance menu
         motherboard CMOS RAM addresses
         overclocking/burn-in test features
         PCI Configuration menu
         Peripheral Configuration menu
         PnP Configuration menu
         Power menu
         Resource Configuration menu
         saving
         Security menu
         summary of menus
         USB Configuration menu
         Video Configuration menu
     compared to ROM (read-only memory)
     compared to storage
     conventional memory barrier
     cost
     DDR SDRAM (double data rate SDRAM) 2nd
     DDR2 SDRAM (double data rate SDRAM)
     defined 2nd
     DIMMs (dual inline memory modules) 2nd
         168-pin DIMM pinouts
         184-pin DIMM pinouts
         240-pin DDR2 DIMM pinouts
         buffered
         buying tips
         illustration
         installation
         memory banks
         SPD (serial presence detect)
         unbuffered
         width
     DIP (dual inline package) chips
     DMA (Direct Memory Access) channels
         16-bit ISA
         8-bit ISA
         CD/DVD drives
     DRAM (dynamic RAM)
         compared to SRAM
         DDR SDRAM (double data rate SDRAM)
         DDR2 SDRAM (double data rate SDRAM)
         FPO DRAM (Fast Page Mode DRAM)
         RDRAM (Rambus DRAM)
         refresh rates
         SDRAM (synchronous DRAM)
         soft errors
         transistor/capacitor pairs
     dual-channel memory
     EDO RAM (extended data out RAM)
     flash memory 2nd
         CompactFlash
         comparison of
         MMC (MultiMediaCard)
         PC Card
         physical size
         reading
         SD (SecureDigital)
         SmartMedia
         Sony Memory Stick
         Sony Memory Stick Pro
         USB keychain drives
         xD-Picture Card
     FPO DRAM (Fast Page Mode DRAM)
     hard fails
     HMA (high memory area)
     identifying module type size, and speed
     installation
     intelligent memory management
     logical mapping
     logical memory layout 2nd
         conventional memory
         UMA (Upper Memory Area)
         XMS (Extended Memory Specification)
     maximum installable memory
     memory buses
     MMU (memory management unit)
     narrow-channel systems
     parity checking
         chipset support
         disabling
         fake parity modules
         NMIs (nonmaskable interrupts)
         odd parity
         parity bits
         parity-check messages
     RDRAM (Rambus DRAM)
         even cycles
         module types and bandwith
         odd cycles
         patents
         power savings
     registered modules
     RIMMs (Rambus inline memory modules) 2nd
         buying tips
         installation
         pinouts
     RTC/NVRAM (real-time clock/nonvolatile memory) 2nd
         modern CMOS batteries
         obsolute/unique CMOS batteries
         troubleshooting
     SDRAM (synchronous DRAM)
     shared memory
     SIMMs (single inline memory modules)
         buying tips
         illustration
         installation 2nd
         memory banks
         pinouts
         presence detect pin configurations
         width
     soft errors
         alpha particles
         cosmic rays
         ECC (error correcting code)
         fault tolerance
         heat buildup
         incorrect memory types
         line noise
         parity checking
         power glitches
         radio frequency interference
         static discharge
         timing glitches
     speed
         clock speeds
         cycle times
         interleaving
         latency
         memory bus bandwidth
         MHz (megahertz)
         module speeds
         nanoseconds
         processor bus bandwidth
     SRAM (static RAM)
     total installed memory
     total usable memory
     troubleshooting 2nd
         diagnostics utilities
         divide errors
         fatal exception errors
         general faults
         global protection faults
         memory defect isolation
         module testers
         parity errors
         step-by-step procedures
         write-back cache
     Ultra-DMA
     UMA (upper memory area)
     unbuffered modules
     upgrading
         dual-channel memory
         higher-capacity modules
         upgrade options and strategies
     VGA (video graphics array) memory
     video RAM 2nd
         DDR SDRAM (double data rate SDRAM)
         DDR-II SDRAM (double data rate SDRAM)
         dynamic video memory
         GDDR-3 SDRAM (double data rate SDRAM)
         minimum requirements
         RAM calculations
         SDRAM (synchronous DRAM)
         SGRAM (synchronous graphics RAM)
         speed
         video bus width
     volatile storage
     wide-channel systems
RAMAC (Random Access Method of Accounting and Control) drives,
Rambus DRAM (RDRAM),
Rambus inline memory modules [See SIMMs (single inline memory modules),.]
RAMDAC (digital-to-analog converter),
random access memory [See RAM (random access memory),.]
Random Number Generator (RNG),
rapid pixel and texel rendering engine,
raster,
rasterization,
raw transfer rates,
Raytech,
Raytek MiniTemp thermometers,
RD482 chipsets,
RD580 chipsets,
RDRAM (Rambus DRAM),
reactive power,
Read Multiple command (ATA),
read-only memory [See ROM BIOS (basic input/output system),.]
read/write heads, 2nd 3rd
     AMR (anistropic magneto-resistant)
     ferrite
     floppy disk drives 2nd
     GMR (giant magneto-resistive)
     magnetic storage
     MIG (Metal-In-Gap)
     MR (magneto-resistive)
     PMR (perpendicular magnetic recording) 2nd
     TF (thin film)
reading
     CD-ROM discs
         error handing
         hub clamping area
         interleaves
         lead-in
         lead-out
         mechanical drive operation
         PCA (power calibration area)
         PMA (power memory area)
         program area
         sampling rates
         sectors
         subcode bytes
         tracks
     DVD discs
     flash memory
     magneto-optical drives
real mode, 2nd
     486DX processors
     80286 processors
     Windows 9x/Me boot process
real-time clock [See RTC (real-time clock),.]
rear-out sound card connectors,
recalibration, thermal,
receptacle (outlet) testers,
recordable DVD drives
     DVD Multi
     DVD+RW
     DVD-R
     DVD-RAM
     DVD-RW
     DVD±R/RW
     media compatibility
     summary of standards
recording
     CDs
         buffer underruns
         copy protection
         DAE (digital audio extraction)
         “For Music Use Only” discs
         multisession recording
         reliability
         software
         tips and recommendations
     floppy disk drives
     recording media
     sound sampling
     standard recording
     ZBR (zoned-bit recording)
recovery
     flash ROM (read-only memory)
     System Restore
Red Book format,
redrawing CRT (cathode ray tube) monitors,
Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), 2nd 3rd
redundant array of independent disks (RAID),
refresh rates
     CRT (cathode ray tube) monitors
     DRAM (dynamic RAM)
     monitors 2nd
refrigeration,
region-free DVD players,
regional playback control (RPC),
registered memory modules,
reinstalling components,
reliability
     ATA (AT Attachment)
     hard disk drives
         MTBF (mean time between failures)
         PFA (Predictive Failure Analysis)
         SMART standard
remarking processors,
remote power switch connectors [See power switch connectors.]
Remote Start option (hard disk drives),
removable keycaps,
removable-media drives [See also tape drives,.]
     advantages
         additional boot devices
         backups
         data transfer between systems
         extra storage
         floppy-based driver installation
     Bernoulli drives
     buying tips 2nd
     connecting
     flash memory media
     installation
     interfaces
     Iomega REV drives
     magnetic disk media
     magnetic tape media
     magneto-optical drives
     Zip drives
rendering images, 2nd
repair [See troubleshooting.]
Repeat Delay parameter (Windows keyboards),
Repeat Rate parameter (Windows keyboards),
repeaters, wireless,
repetitive stress injuries,
replacing components
     batteries
     BIOS chips
     bootstrap approach
     compared to reinstalling components
     industry-standard replaceable components
     keyboards
     known-good spare technique
     power supply
     video adapters 2nd
Report No FDD For WIN 95 setting (BIOS),
reprogrammable microcode,
rescue CDs, creating,
reseating socketed chips,
resistive power,
resolution
     audio files
     LCD (liquid crystal display) monitors
     Photo CD
     video monitors
Resource Configuration menu (BIOS Setup),
resources (system),
     conflicts
         Device Manager
         multiple-COM-port adapters
         NICs (network interface cards)
         PnP (Plug and Play)
         preventing
         resolving manually
         SCSI adapter boards
         sound cards
         system-configuration templates
         USB (Universal Serial Bus)
         video software
     DMA (Direct Memory Access) channels
     I/O port addresses
         bus-based device port addresses
         chipset-based device port addresses
         motherboard-based device port addresses
     IRQs (interrupt request channels)
         16-bit ISA/EISA/MCA bus interrupts
         8-bit ISA bus interrupts
         conflicts
         edge-triggered interrupt sensing
         interrupt sharing
         IRQ Steering 2nd
         maskable interrupts
         PCI interrupts
restore points,
Resuming from disk, Press TAB to show POST screen (error message),
retensioning tapes,
REV drives,
reverse-engineering software,
RF [See radio frequency (RF).]
RG-58 cables,
RIMMs (Rambus inline memory modules), 2nd
     buying tips
     installation
     pinouts
ring topology,
ripping CDs,
ripple (power supply),
RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) chips
riser cards
     ATX motherboards
     LPX motherboards
     NLX motherboard
RJ-45 connectors,
RLL (Run Length Limited), 2nd
RNG (Random Number Generator),
Roberts, Ed,
Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP),
RocketHead 100 converter,
ROM BIOS (basic input/output system), 2nd [See also POST (power on self test),.]
     adapter cards
     AMD-K6 processors
     AMI
     backing up
     boot ROM
     bootstrap loader
     burning
     buying tips
     CMOS RAM setup
         accessing
         additional setup features
         Advanced menu
         ATA Configuration menu
         backing up
         Boot Configuration menu
         Boot Device Priority menu
         Boot menu
         Event Logging menu
         Exit menu
         Extended Configuration menu 2nd
         Fan Control Configuration menu
         Floppy Configuration menu
         main menu
         Maintenance menu
         overclocking/burn-in test features
         PCI Configuration menu
         Peripheral Configuration menu
         PnP Configuration menu
         Power menu
         Resource Configuration menu
         saving
         Security menu
         USB Configuration menu
         Video Configuration menu
     compared to CMOS RAM
     compared to RAM
     dates
     defined 2nd
     drive capacity limitations
     drivers
     EEPROM (electronically erasable programmable ROM)
         flash ROM recovery
         upgrading
     EPROM (erasable programmable ROM)
     error messages
         DISK BOOT FAILURE
         Invalid partition table
         Missing operating system
         No boot device available
         No boot sector on fixed disk
         NO ROM BASIC SYSTEM HALTED
         Non-System disk or disk error
     firmware
     flash ROM 2nd
     hard disk capacity limitations
     host adapter BIOS
     ID strings
         AMI Hi-Flex BIOS
         AMI Hi-Flex BIOS String 2
         AMI Hi-Flex BIOS String 3
         older AMI BIOS versions
         viewing
     IML (Initial Microcode Load)
     IPL (initial program load) ROM 2nd
     logical memory layout
     manufacturers
         AMI (American Megatrends, Inc.)
         Award Software
         MR (Microid Research)
         OEMs (original equipment manufacturers)
         Phoenix
     Mask ROM
     memory conflicts
     motherboard BIOS 2nd
     non-PC ROM upgrades
     passwords
     PnP (Plug and Play) 2nd
     preboot environment
     PROM (programmable ROM)
     replacing
     ROM chip part numbers
     ROM hardware
     ROM shadowing 2nd
     RTC/NVRAM (real-time clock/nonvolatile memory) chips
     SATA (Serial ATA) setup
     Setup program
         accessing
         additional setup features
         Advanced menu
         ATA Configuration menu
         ATA RAID Controller feature
         Boot Configuration menu
         Boot Device Priority menu
         Boot menu
         Boot Up Floppy Seek feature
         Boot Up System Speed feature
         CPU Clock Multiplier feature
         CPU Frequency feature
         CPU Hyper-threading feature
         CPU Internal Cache/External Cache feature
         CPU Vcore Setting feature
         Event Logging menu
         Exit menu
         Extended Configuration menu 2nd
         Fan Control Configuration menu
         Floppy Configuration menu
         Gate A20 Option feature
         HDD S.M.A.R.T. Capability feature
         IEEE-1394a Port feature
         main menu
         Maintenance menu
         numeric keypads
         Operating Frequency feature
         overclocking/burn-in test features
         PC Health feature
         PCI Configuration menu
         Peripheral Configuration menu
         PnP Configuration menu
         Power menu
         PS/2 Mouse Function Control feature
         Quick Power On Self Test feature
         Report No FDD For WIN 95 feature
         Resource Configuration menu
         ROM Shadowing feature
         running 2nd
         Security menu
         Security Option feature
         Serial ATA Controller feature
         summary of menus
         Swap Floppy Drive feature
         Typematic Delay feature
         Typematic Rate feature
         Typematic Rate Setting feature
         USB Configuration menu
         Video Configuration menu
         Virus Warning feature
     The BIOS Companion
     updates
     upgrading
         advantages of
         chip replacements
         CMOS RAM addresses
         CMOS RAM backups
         CMOS RAM diagnostic status codes
         flash ROM recovery
         flash ROM upgrades
         IML (Initial Microcode Load)
         keyboard-controller chips
         obtaining updates
         prerequisites
         version information
         Y2K issues
     version, determining
     video BIOS 2nd
     Y2K issues
ROM Shadowing setting (BIOS),
root hubs,
rotary voice-coil actuators,
routers,
     Internet sharing
     wireless routers
Roxio Software,
RPC (regional playback control),
RRIP (Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol),
RS-422 serial interface,
RS480 chipsets,
RTC (real-time clock), 2nd
     modern CMOS batteries
     obsolete/unique CMOS batteries
     troubleshooting
rubber dome keyswitches,
Run Length Limited (RLL), 2nd
ruthenium,
Rutledge, Joseph,

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