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Ovid: Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine

Editors: Longmore, Murray; Wilkinson, Ian B; Turmezei, Tom; Cheung, Chee Kay Title: Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine, 7th Edition Copyright ©2007 Oxford University Press > Front of Book > Symbols and abbreviations Symbols and abbreviations Symbols and abbreviations ▶ ▶▶ this fact or idea is important. ▶▶don’t dawdle!—prompt action saves lives image incendiary (controversial) topic [ ] non-BNF drug dose image reference available on our website www.oup.com/OHCM ♂ : ♀ male-to-female ratio. û:ý=2:1 means twice as common in males @1234567 search Medline (pubmed.gov) with ‘1234567’ to get an abstract (omit the ‘@’) ∵ ~ on account of (Ì means therefore; ~ means approximately) -ve +ve negative and positive, respectively ↑ ↓ ↔ increased, decreased, and normal, respectively (eg serum level) △; △△ diagnosis; δδ means differential diagnosis (list of possibilities) A2 aortic component of the second heart sound A2A angiotensin-2 receptor antagonist (p283; = AT-2, A2R, and AIIR) Ab antibody ABC airway, breathing, and circulation: basic life support (see inside back cover) ABG arterial blood gas (PaO2, PaCO2, pH, HCOimage) ABPA allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis Ac ante cibum (before food) ACE(i) angiotensin-converting enzyme (inhibitors) ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone ADH antidiuretic hormone ad lib ad libitum; as much/as often as wanted (Latin for at pleasure) AF atrial fibrillation AFB acid-fast bacillus AFP or α-FP alpha-fetoprotein Ag antigen AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Alk phos alkaline phosphatase (also ALP) ALL acute lymphoblastic leukaemia AMA antimitochondrial antibody AMP adenosine monophosphate ANA antinuclear antibody ANCA antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody APTT activated partial thromboplastin time AR aortic regurgitation ARA angiotensin receptor antagonist (p301; also AT-2, A2R, and AIIR) ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome ARF acute renal failure AS aortic stenosis ASD atrial septal defect ASO(T) antistreptolysin O (titre) AST aspartate transaminase AT-2 angiotensin-2 receptor blocker (p283; also AT-2, A2R, and AIIR) ATN acute tubular necrosis ATP adenosine triphosphate AV atrioventricular AVM arteriovenous malformation(s) AXR abdominal x-ray (plain) Ba barium BAL bronchoalveolar lavage Bd bis die (twice a day) BKA below-knee amputation BMJ/BMA British Medical Journal/British Medical Association BNF British National Formulary BP blood pressure bpm beats per minute (eg pulse) Ca cancer CABG coronary artery bypass graft cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis CBD common bile duct CC creatinine clearance (also CrCl) CCF congestive cardiac failure (ie left and right heart failure) CCU coronary care unit CHB complete heart block CHD coronary heart disease (related to ischaemia and atheroma) CI contraindications CK creatine (phospho)kinase (also CPK) CLL/CML chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/chronic myeloid leukaemia CMV cytomegalovirus CNS central nervous system COC combined oral contraceptive, ie (o)estrogen + progesterone COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease CPAP continuous positive airways pressure CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation CRF chronic renal failure CRP c-reactive protein CSF cerebrospinal fluid CT computer tomography CVP central venous pressure P.vii
CVS cardiovascular system CXR chest x-ray d day(s) (also expressed as /7) DC direct current DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation DIP distal interphalangeal dl decilitre DoH (or DH) department of health (UK) DM diabetes mellitus DU duodenal ulcer D&V diarrhoea and vomiting DVT deep venous thrombosis DXT deep radiotherapy E-BM evidence-based medicine and its journal published by the BMA EBV Epstein-Barr virus ECG electrocardiogram Echo echocardiogram EDTA ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (eg in FBC bottle) EEG electroencephalogram ELISA enzyme linked immunosorbant assay EM electron microscope EMG electromyogram ENT ear, nose, and throat ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; see also MRCP ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate ESRF end-stage renal failure EUA examination under anaesthesia FB foreign body FBC full blood count FDP fibrin degradation products FEV1; FiO2 forced expiratory volume in 1st sec; FiO2: partial pressure of O2 in inspired air FFP fresh frozen plasma FroM full range of movements FSH follicle-stimulating hormone FVC forced vital capacity g gram GA general anaesthetic GAT(Sanford) Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy www.sanfordguide.com GB gall bladder GC gonococcus GCS Glasgow coma scale GFR glomerular filtration rate eGFR, p661 GGT gamma glutamyl transpeptidase GH growth hormone GI gastrointestinal GP general practitioner G6PD glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase GTN glyceryl trinitrate GTT glucose tolerance test (also OGTT: oral GTT) GU(M) genitourinary (medicine) h hour HAV hepatitis A virus Hb haemoglobin HBsAg/HBV hepatitis B surface antigen/hepatitis B virus HCC hepatocellular cancer Hct haematocrit HCV (HDV) hepatitis C virus (HDV is hepatitis D virus) HDL high-density lipoprotein, p683 HHT hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia HIDA hepatic immunodiacetic acid HIV human immunodeficiency virus HOCM hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy HONK hyperosmolar nonketotic (diabetic coma) HRT hormone replacement therapy HSV herpes simplex virus IBD inflammatory bowel disease IBW ideal body weight, p434 ICP intracranial pressure IDA iron-deficiency anaemia IDDM insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus IFN-α alpha interferon IE infective endocarditis Ig immunoglobulin IHD ischaemic heart disease IM intramuscular INR international normalized ratio (prothrombin ratio) IP interphalangeal IPPV intermittent positive pressure ventilation ITP idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura ITU intensive therapy unit iu international unit P.viii
IVC inferior vena cava IV(I) intravenous (infusion) IVU intravenous urography JAMA Journal of the American Medical Association JVP jugular venous pressure K potassium KCCT kaolin cephalin clotting time Kg kilogram Kpa kiloPascal L litre LAD left axis deviation on the ECG; also left anterior descending coronary artery LBBB left bundle branch block LDH lactate dehydrogenase LDL low-density lipoprotein, p683 LBW lean body weight, p434 LFT liver function test LH luteinizing hormone LIF left iliac fossa LKKS liver, kidney (R), kidney (L), spleen LMN lower motor neurone LP lumbar puncture LUQ left upper quadrant LV left ventricle of the heart LVF; LVH left ventricular failure; left ventricular hypertrophy µg microgram MAI Mycobacterium avium intracellulare MAOI monoamine oxidase inhibitors mane morning (from Latin; the ‘e’ may be written ‘é’, but purists frown on this) MC & S microscopy, culture and sensitivity MCP metacarpo-pharangeal MCV mean cell volume MDMA 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ME myalgic encephalomyelitis MET meta-analysis mg milligram MI myocardial infarction min(s) minute(s) mL millilitre mmHg millimetres of mercury MND motor neurone disease MRCP magnetic imaging cholangiopancreatography (also Member of Royal College of Physicians) MRI magnetic resonance imaging MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (p408) MS multiple sclerosis (do not confuse with mitral stenosis) MSU midstream urine NAD nothing abnormal detected NBM nil by mouth ND notifiable disease NEJM New England Journal of Medicine ng nanogram NG(T) nasogastric (tube) NHS National Health Service (UK) NICE National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence www.nice.org.uk NIDDM non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus NMDA N-methyl-D-aspartate NNT number needed to treat, for 1 extra satisfactory result (p650) Nocte at night NR normal range—the same as reference interval NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs N&V nausea and/or vomiting od omni die (once daily) OD overdose OGD oesophagogastroduodenoscopy OGS oxogenic steroids OGTT oral glucose tolerance test OHCS Oxford Handbook of Clinical Specialties, 7e OUP, Collier & Longmore om; on omni mane (in the morning); omni nocte (at night) OPD out-patients department ORh- blood group O, Rh negative OT occupational therapist OTM/S Oxford Textbook of Medicine (OUP 4e, 2003)/Surgery (2000) P2 pulmonary component of second heart sound PaCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood PAN polyarteritis nodosa PaO2 partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood PBC primary biliary cirrhosis PCP Pneumocystis carinii (jiroveci) pneumonia PCR polymerase chain reaction (DNA diagnosis) PCV packed cell volume PE pulmonary embolism PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure P.ix
PERLA pupils equal and reactive to light and accommodation PEF(R) peak expiratory flow (rate) PID pelvic inflammatory disease PIP proximal interphalangeal (joint) PMH past medical history PND paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea PO per os (by mouth) PPF purified plasma fraction (albumin) PPI proton pump inhibitor, eg omeprazole, lansoprazole, etc. PR per rectum (by the rectum) PRL prolactin PRN pro re nata (as required) PRV polycythaemia rubra vera PSA prostate specific antigen PTH parathyroid hormone PTT prothrombin time PUO pyrexia of unknown origin PV per vaginam (by the vagina; the route for pessaries) PVD peripheral vascular disease qds; qqh quater die sumendus (to be taken 4хdaily); qqh quarta quaque hora: every 4h R right RA rheumatoid arthritis RAD right axis deviation on the ECG RBBB right bundle branch block RBC red blood cell RCT randomized control trial RFT respiratory function tests Rh Rh; not an abbreviation, but derived from the rhesus monkey RIF right iliac fossa RUQ right upper quadrant RV right ventricle of heart RVF right ventricular failure RVH right ventricular hypertrophy [prescription take] recipe (treat with) S or sec second(s) S1, S2 first and second heart sounds SBE subacute bacterial endocarditis (IE is infective endocarditis) SC subcutaneous sd standard deviation SE side-effect(s) SL Sublingual SLE systemic lupus erythematosus SOB short of breath (SOB(O)E: short of breath on exercise) SPC summary of product characteristics (SPC; www.medicines.org.uk) SpO2 peripheral oxygen saturation (%) SR slow-release (also called MR, modified-release) Stat statim (immediately; as initial dose) STD/STI sexually-transmitted disease or sexually-transmitted infection SVC superior vena cava Sy(n) syndrome T° temperature T½ biological half-life T3; T4 triiodothyronine; T4 is thyroxine TB tuberculosis tds ter die sumendus (to be taken 3 times a day) TFTs thyroid function tests (eg TSH) TIA transient ischaemic attack TIBC total iron binding capacity tid ter in die (3 times a day) TPR temperature, pulse, and respirations count TRH; TSH thyroid-releasing hormone; TSH means thyroid-stimulating hormone U units UC ulcerative colitis U&E urea and electrolytes and creatinine—in plasma, unless stated otherwise UMN upper motor neurone URT(I) upper respiratory tract (infection) US(S) ultrasound (scan) UTI urinary tract infection VDRL venereal diseases research laboratory (syphilis serology) VE ventricular extrasystole VF ventricular fibrillation VMA vanillyl mandelic acid (HMMA) [V with dot above]/[Q with dot above] ventilation/perfusion ratio VSD ventriculo-septal defect VT ventricular tachycardia WBC; WCC white blood cell; white blood cell count wk(s) week(s) WR Wassermann reaction yr(s) year(s) ZN Ziehl-Neelsen (stain for acid-fast bacilli, eg mycobacteria) Other abbreviations are given on pages where they occur: also, consult the index.

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