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MD Consult:

Chapter 708 – Reference Intervals for Laboratory Tests and Procedures

Stanley F. Lo

In Tables 708-1 through 708-6 (found on the Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics website at www.expertconsult.com   ), the reference intervals apply to infants, children, and adolescents when possible. For many analyses, however, separate reference intervals for children and adolescents are not well delineated. When interpreting a test result, the reference interval supplied by the laboratory performing the test should always be used as these intervals are instrument and/or method dependent. See Figures 708-1 to 708-3 (also located on the Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics website at www.expertconsult.com   ) for estimations related to dosages.

Table 708-1   — PREFIXES DENOTING DECIMAL FACTORS

PREFIX SYMBOL FACTOR
Mega- M 106
Kilo- k 103
Hecto- h 102
Deka- da 101
Deci- d 10−1
Centi- c 10−2
Milli- m 10−3
Micro- ? 10−6
Nano- n 10−9
Pico- p 10−12
Femto- f 10−15

Table 708-2   — ABBREVIATIONS

Ab Absorbance
AU Arbitrary unit
BB Brain isoenzyme of creatine kinase
cap Capillary
CH50 Dilution required to lyse 50% of indicator red blood cells; indicates complement activity
Cr Creatinine
CSF Cerebrospinal fluid
F Female
g Gram
hr Hour, hours
Hb Hemoglobin
HbCO Carboxyhemoglobin
hpf High-power field
IU International unit of hormone activity
L Liter
M Male
MB Heart isoenzyme of creatine kinase
mEq/L Milliequivalents per liter
min Minute, minutes
mm3 Cubic millimeter, microliter (?L)
mm Hg Millimeters of mercury
mo Month, months
mol Mole
mmol Millimole
mOsm Milliosmole
MW Relative molecular weight
ND Not detected
nm Nanometer (wavelength)
Pa Pascal
pc Postprandial
RBC Red blood cell(s), erythrocyte(s)
RT Room temperature
sec Second, seconds
SD Standard deviation
Tr Trace
U International unit of enzyme activity
V Volume
WBC White blood cell(s)
WHO World Health Organization
wk Week, weeks
yr Year, years

Table 708-3   — SYMBOLS

> Greater than
Greater than or equal to
< Less than
Less than or equal to
? Plus or minus
Approximately equal to

Table 708-4   — ABBREVIATIONS FOR SPECIMENS

S Serum
P Plasma
(H) Heparin
(LiH) Lithium heparin
(E) Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)
(C) Citrate
(O) Oxalate
W Whole blood
U Urine
F Feces
CSF Cerebrospinal fluid
AF Amniotic fluid
(NaC) Sodium citrate
(NH4H) Ammonium heparinate

Table 708-5   — KEY TO COMMENTS

30?C, 37?C Temperature of enzymatic analysis (Celsius)
a Values obtained are significantly method-dependent
b Values in older males are higher than those in older females
c Values in older females are higher than those in older males
d Atomic absorption
e Borate affinity chromatography
f Cation-exchange chromatography
g Vitros, a proprietary analytic system of Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Inc.
i Electrophoresis
j Enzymatic assay
k Enzyme-amplified immunoassay
l Fluorometric method
m Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)
n Fluorescence polarization
o Gas chromatography
p High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
q Indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) assay
r Ion-selective electrode
s Nephelometry
t Optical density
u Radial immunodiffusion (RID)
v Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
w Spectrophotometry

Table 708-6   — REFERENCE INTERVALS*[†]

ANALYTE OR PROCEDURE SPECIMEN REFERENCE VALUES (USA) CONVERSION FACTOR REFERENCE VALUES (SI) COMMENTS
COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT            
Hematocrit (HCT, Hct) W(E)   % of packed red cells (V red cells/V whole blood cells ? 100   Volume fraction (V red cells/V whole blood)  
 Calculated from mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and RBC count (electronic displacement or laser)   0-30 days 44-70% ?0.01 0.44-0.70  
  1-23 mo 32-42%   0.32-0.42  
  2-9 yr 33-43%   0.33-0.43  
  10-17 yr M 36-47%   0.36-0.47  
  F 35-45%   0.35-0.45  
  >18-99 yr M 42-52%   0.42-0.52  
  F 37-47%   0.37-0.47  
Hemoglobin (Hb) W(E)   g/dL   mmol/L  
    0-30 days 15.0-24.0 ?0.155 2.32-3.72 MW Hb = 64,500
    1-23 mo 10.5-14.0   1.63-2.17  
    2-9 yr 11.5-14.5   1.78-2.25  
    10-17 yr M 12.5-16.1   1.93-2.50  
    F 12.0-15.0   1.86-2.32  
    >18-99 yr M 13.5-18.0   2.09-2.79  
    F 12.5-16.0   1.93-2.48  
  P(H) See Chemical Elements      
Erythrocyte indices (RBC indices)              
 Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) W(E)   pg/cell   fmol/cell  
  0-30 days 33-39 ?0.0155 0.51-0.60  
  1-23 mo 24-30   0.37-0.46  
  2-9 yr 25-31   0.39-0.48  
  10-17 yr M 26-32   0.26-0.32  
  F 26-32   0.26-0.32  
  >18-99 yr M 27-31   0.27-0.31  
  F 27-31   0.27-0.31  
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) W(E)   % Hb/cell or g Hb/dL RBC   mmol Hb/L RBC  
    32-36 ?0.155 4.96-5.58  
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) W(E)   ?m3   fL  
    0-30 days 99-115 ?1 99-115  
    1-23 mo 72-88   72-88  
    2-9 yr 76-90   76-90  
    10-17 yr 78-95   78-95  
    >18-99 yr 78-100   78-100  
Leukocyte count (WBC count) W(E) ?1,000 cells/mm3(?L)   ?109 cells/L  
    0-30 days 9.1-34.0 ?1 9.1-34.0  
    1-23 mo 6.0-14.0   6.0-14.0  
    2-9 yr 4.0-12.0   45.0-12.0  
    10-17 yr 4.0-10.5   4.0-10.5  
    18-99 yr 4.0-10.5   4.0-10.5  
Leukocyte differential W(E) %   Number fraction  
 Myelocytes   0% ?0.01 0  
 Neutrophils (“bands”)   3-5%   0.03-0.05  
 Neutrophils (“segs”)   54-62%   0.54-0.62  
 Lymphocytes   25-33%   0.25-0.33  
 Monocytes   3-7%   0.03-0.07  
 Eosinophils   1-3%   0.01-0.03  
 Basophils   0-0.75%   0-0.0075  
    Cells/mm3 (?L)   ?106 cells/L  
 Myelocytes   0 ?1 0  
 Neutrophils (“bands”)   150-400   150-400  
 Neutrophils (“segs”)   3,000-5,800   3,000-5,800  
 Lymphocytes   1,500-3,000   1,500-3,000  
 Monocytes   285-500   285-500  
 Eosinophils   50-250   50-250  
 Basophils   15-50   15-50  
Platelet count (thrombocyte count) W(E) ?103/mm3 (?L)   ?109/L  
  Newborn 84-478 (after 1 wk, same as adult) ?106 84-478 (Buck, 1996)
  Adult 150-400   150-400  
Reticulocyte count W(E,H,O) Adults 0.5-1.5% of erythrocytes or 25,000-75,000/mm3 (?L) ?0.01
?106
0.005-0.015 (number fraction) or 25,000-75,000 ? 106/L  
      %   Number fraction  
  W(cap) 1 day 0.4-6.0 ?0.01 0.004-0.060  
    7 days <0.1-1.3   <0.001-0.013  
    1-4 wk <1.0-1.2   <0.001-0.012  
    5-6 wk <0.1-2.4   <0.001-0.024  
    7-8 wk 0.1-2.9   0.001-0.029  
    9-10 wk <0.1-2.6   <0.001-0.026  
    11-12 wk 0.1-1.3   0.001-0.013  
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, SGPT) S 0-7 days 6-40 U/L ?1 6-40 U/L 37? bgw (Soldin, Savwoir, and Guo, 1997)
(Lockitch, Halstead, and Albersheim, 1988)
g (Meites, 1989)(Soldin and Morse, 1998)(Lockitch, Halstead, and Albersheim, 1988)
  8-30 days M 10-40   10-40
  F 8-32   8-32
  1-12 mo 12-45   12-45
  1-19 yr 5-45   5-45
Albumin (BCG) P Premature 1 day 1.8-3.0 g/dL ?10 18-30 g/dL
    Full term <6 days 2.5-3.4   25-34
    8 days-1 yr 1.9-4.9   19-49
    1-3 yr 3.4-4.2   34-42
    4-19 yr 3.5-5.6   35-56
Ammonia P   11-35 ?mol/L ?1 11-35 ?mol/L g
Amylase S,P 1-19 yr 30-100 U/L ?1 30-100 U/L (Lockitch, Halstead, and Albersheim et al, 1988; Gillard et al, 1983)
      % pancreatic fraction   % pancreatic fraction  
Amylase isoenzymes S,P(H) Cord-8 mo 0-34% ?0.01 0-0.34%  
    9 mo-4 yr 5-56%   0.05-0.56%  
    5-19 yr 23-59%   0.23-0.59%  
Anion gap (sodium − [chloride + bicarbonate]) P(H) 7-16 mEq/L   ?1 7-16 mEq/L  
Anti-deoxyribonuclease B titer (anti-DNase B titer) S Age Upper limit of normal   Upper limit of normal  
  4-6 yr 240-480 U ?1 240-480 U (Kaplan et al, 1998)
  7-12 yr 480-800 U   480-800 U  
Antidiuretic hormone (hADH, vasopressin) P(E) Plasma osmolarity (mOsm/kg) Plasma ADH (pg/mL)   Plasma ADH ng/L  
    270-280 <1.5 ?1 <1.5  
    280-285 <2.5   <2.5  
    285-290 1-5   1-5  
    290-295 2-7   2-7  
    295-300 4-12   4-12  
Antistreptolysin-O titer (ASO titer) S Age Upper limit of normal   Upper limit of normal  
  2-5 yr 120-160 Todd units ?1 120-160 Todd units (Kaplan et al, 1998)
  6-9 yr 240 Todd units   240 Todd units  
  10-12 yr 320 Todd units   320 Todd units  
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, SGOT) S   U/L   U/L  
  0-7 days M 30-100 ?1 35-100 37? g (Soldin, Savwoir, and Guo, 1997)
(Lockitch, Halstead, and Albersheim, 1988)
  F 24-95   24-95
  8-30 days 22-71   22-71
  1-12 mo 22-63   22-63
  1-3yr 20-60   20-60
  3-9 yr 15-50   15-50
  10-15 yr 10-40   10-40
  16-19 yr M 15-45   15-45
  F 5-30   5-30
Base excess W(H)   mmol/L   mmol/L  
    Newborn (−10)-(−2) ?1 (−10)-(−2)  
    Infant (−7)-(−1)   (−7)-(−1)  
    Child (−4)-(+2)   (−4)-(+2)  
    Thereafter (−3)-(+3)   (−3)-(−3)  
Bicarbonate S,P   mmol/L   mmol/L  
    Arterial 21-28 ?1 21-28  
    Venous 22-29   22-29  
Bilirubin, total S   mg/dL   ?mol/L  
    Newborn See Bhutani nomogram (see Table 708-7) ?17.1   (Bhutani, Johnson, and Sivieri, 1999)
    1 mo-adult <1.0   <17
C-reactive protein (high sensitivity) S               (Soldin, et al, 2004)
    M (mg/dL) F (mg/dL)   M (mg/L) F (mg/L)  
  0-90 days 0.08-1.58 0.09-1.58 ?10 0.8-15.8 0.9-15.8  
  91 days-12 mo 0.08-1.12 0.05-0.79   0.8-11.2 0.5-7.9  
  13 mo-3 yr 0.08-1.12 0.08-0.79   0.8-11.2 0.8-7.9  
  4-10 yr 0.06-0.79 0.5-1.0   0.6-7.9 0.5-10.0  
  11-14 yr 0.08-0.76 0.06-0.81   0.8-7.6 0.6-8.1  
  15-18 yr 0.04-0.79 0.06-0.79   0.4-7.9 0.6-7.9  
Calcium, ionized (Ca) S,P(H),W(H)   mg/dL   mmol/L  
    Cord blood 5.0-6.0 ?0.25 1.25-1.50  
    Newborn, 3-24 hr 4.3-5.1   1.07-1.27  
    24-48 hr 4.0-4.7   1.00-1.17  
    Thereafter 4.8-4.92   1.12-1.23  
    or 2.24-2.46 Eq/L ?0.5 1.12-1.23  
Calcium, total S   mg/dL   mmol/L  
    Cord blood 9.0-11.5 ?0.25 2.25-2.88  
    Newborn, 3-24 hr 9.0-10.6   2.3-2.65  
    24-48 hr 7.0-12.0   1.75-3.00  
    4-7 days 9.0-10.9   2.25-2.73  
    Child 8.8-10.8   2.20-2.70  
    Therafter 8.4-10.2   2.10-2.55  
Carbon dioxide, partial pressure (PCO2) W(H)   mm Hg   kPa  
  Newborn 27-40 ?0.1333 3.6-5.3  
  Infant 27-41   3.6-5.5  
  Thereafter M 35-48   4.7-6.4  
  F 32-45   4.3-6.0  
Carbon monoxide (carboxyhemoglobin) W(E) Nonsmoker <2% HbCO ?0.01 HbCO fraction <0.02  
  Smoker <10%   <0.10  
  Lethal >50%   >0.5  
Chloride S,P(H) Cord blood 96-104 mmol/L ?1 96-104 mmol/L  
    Newborn 97-110   97-110  
    Thereafter 98-106   98-106  
Chloride, sweat Sweat   mmol/L         (Farrell, Rosenstein, White, et al, 2008)
    0-5 mo ≤29 CF unlikely      
      30-59 intermediate      
      ≥60 indicative of CF      
    ≥6 mo ≤39 CF unlikely      
      40-60 intermediate      
      ≥60 indicative of CF      
Cortisol S,P(H)   ?g/dL   nmol/L  
    Newborn 1-24 ?27.59 28-662  
    Adults, 8:00 a.m. 5-23   138-635  
    4:00 p.m. 3-15   82-413  
    8:00 p.m. <50% of 8:00 a.m. ?0.01 Fraction of 8:00 a.m.  
            ≤0.50  
Creatine kinase S Cord blood 70-380 U/L ?1 70-380 U/L 30?b (Jedeikin, et al, 1982)
    5-8 hr 214-1,175   214-1,175
    24-33 hr 130-1,200   130-1,200
    72-100 hr 87-725   87-725
    Adult 5-130   5-130
Creatine kinase isoenzymes S   % MB % BB    
    Cord blood 0.3-3.1 0.3-10.5        
    5-8 hr 1.7-7.9 3.6-13.4        
    24-33 hr 1.8-5.0 2.3-8.6        
    72-100 hr 1.4-5.4 5.1-13.3        
    Adult 0-2 0        
Creatinine (IDMS)                
 Enzymatic S,P   mg/dL   ?mol/L   g
    0-4 yr 0.03-0.50 ?88.4 2.65-44.2  
    4-7 yr 0.03-0.59   2.65-52.2  
    7-10 yr 0.22-0.59   19.4-52.2  
    10-14 yr 0.31-0.88   27.4-77.8  
    >14 yr 0.50-1.06   44.2-93.7  
Creatinine clearance (endogenous) S,P,U Newborn 40-65 mL/min/1.73 m2          
  <40 yr, M 97-137          
  F 88-128          
  Decreases <6.5 mL/min/decade          
Ferritin S   ng/mL   ?g/L  
    0-6 wk 0-400 ?1 0-400  
    7 wk-365 days 10-95   10-95  
    1-9 yr 10-60   10-60  
    10-18 yr M 10-300   10-300  
    F 10-70   10-70  
Folate S Newborn 7.0-32 ng/mL ?2.265 15.9-72.4 nmol/L  
    Thereafter 1.8-9.0   4.1-20.4  
  W(E) 150-450 ng/mL RBCs   340-1,020 nmol/L cells  
Glucose S   mg/dL   mmol/L  
    Cord blood 45-96 ?0.0555 2.5-5.3  
    Premature 20-60   1.1-3.3  
    Neonate 30-60   1.7-3.3  
    Newborn        
    1 day 40-60   2.2-3.3  
    >1 day 50-90   2.8-5.0  
    Child 60-100   3.3-5.5  
    Adult 70-105   3.9-5.8  
  W(H) Adult 65-95   3.6-5.3  
Glucose, 2 hr post S <120 mg/dL     <6.7 mmol/L  
Glucose tolerance test (GTT) S   mg/dL     mmol/L  
Oral dose Adult: 75 g     Normal Diabetic     Normal Diabetic  
Child: 1.75 g/kg of ideal weight, up to a maximum of 75 g   Fasting 70-105 ≥126 ?0.0555   3.9-5.8 ≥7.0 (American Diabetes Association, 1977)
  60 min 120-170 ≥200     6.7-9.4 ≥11
  90 min 100-140 ≥200     5.6-7.8 ≥11
  120 min 70-120 ≥200     3.9-6.7 ≥11
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in erythrocytes   W(E,H,C)              
Bishop, modified   Adult     Adult  
    3.4-8.0 U/g Hb ?0.0645 0.22-0.52 mU/mol Hb  
    98.6-232 U/1012 RBC ?10−3 0.10-0.23 nU/106 RBC  
    1.16-2.72 U/mL RBC ?1 1.16-2.72 kU/L RBC  
    Newborn: 50% higher   Newborn: 50% higher  
γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, GGTP) S   U/L   U/L  
  Cord blood 37-193 ?1 37-193 37?b (Knight and Haymond, 1981)
  0-1 mo 13-147   13-147
  1-2 mo 12-123   12-123
  2-4 mo 8-90   8-90
  4 mo-10 yr 5-32   5-32
  10-15 yr 5-24   5-24
Immunoglobulin A (lgA) S   mg/dL   mg/L  
  Cord blood 1.4-3.6 ?10 14-36 s (Meites, 1989)
  1-3 mo 1.3-53   13-530
  4-6 mo 4.4-84   44-840
  7 mo-1 yr 11-106   110-1,060
  2-5 yr 14-159   140-1,590
  6-10 yr 33-236   330-2,360
  Adult 70-312   700-3,120
Immunoglobulin D (lgD) S Newborn: none detected   None detected  
    Thereafter: 0-8 mg/dL ?10 0-80 mg/L  
Immunoglobulin E (lgE) S M 0-230 IU/mL ?1 0-230 kIU/L  
    F 0-170   0-170  
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) S   mg/dL   g/L  
    Cord blood 636-1,606 ?0.01 6.36-16.06 s (Meites, 1989)
    1 mo 251-906   2.51-9.06  
    2-4 mo 176-601   1.76-6.01  
    5-12 mo 172-1,069   1.72-10.69  
    1-5 yr 345-1,236   3.45-12.36  
    6-10 yr 608-1,572   6.08-15.72  
    Adult 639-1,349   6.39-13.49  
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) S   mg/dL   mg/L  
    Cord blood 6.3-25 ?10 63-250 s (Meites, 1989)
    1-4 mo 17-105   170-1,050  
    5-9 mo 33-126   330-1,260  
    10 mo-1 yr 41-173   410-1,730  
    2-8 yr 43-207   430-2,070  
    9-10 yr 52-242   520-2,420  
    Adult 56-352   560-3,520  
Iron P All ages 22-184 ?g/dL ?0.1791 4-33 ?mol/L (Lockitch, Halstead, and Wadsworth, et al, 1988)
Iron-binding capacity, total (TIBC) S Infant 100-400 ?g/dL ?0.179 17.90-71.60 ?mol/L
  Thereafter 250-400   44.75-71.60
l-lactate (perchloric acid) W   mg/dL   mmol/L  
  1-12 mo 10-21 ?1 1.1-2.3 (Bonnefont, et al, 1990)
  1-7 yr 7-14   0.8-1.5
  7-15 yr 5-8   0.6-0.9
d-lactate P(H)         j (Rosenthal and Pesce, 1985)
    6 mo-3 yr 0.0-0.3 ?1 0.0-0.3
Lactate dehydrogenase S   U/L   U/L  
    <1 yr 170-580 ?1 170-580 37?a (Meites, 1989)
    1-9 yr 150-500   150-500  
    10-19 yr 120-330   120-330  
Isoenzymes S   % of total activity      
      1-6 yr 7-19 yr          
    LD1 20-38 20-35          
    LD2 27-38 31-38          
    LD3 16-26 19-28          
    LD4 5-16 7-13          
    LD5 3-13 5-12          
Lead W(H)   ?g/dL   mmol/L  
    Child <10 ?0.0483 <0.48  
    Toxic ≥70   ≥3.38  
Lipase P,S 1-18 yr 145-216 U/L ?1 145-216 U/L (Ghoshal and Soldin, 2003)
Magnesium P(H)   mg/dL   mmol/L  
    0-6 days 1.2-2.6 ?0.411 0.48-1.05 w (Meites, 1989)
    7 days-2 yr 1.6-2.6   0.65-1.05  
    2-14 yr 1.5-2.3   0.60-0.95  
    0.78 ? 0.37% of total Hb ?0.01 0.0078 ? 0.0037 (mass fraction)  
Osmolality S Child, adult          
    275-295 mOsmol/kg H2O          
Phosphatase, alkaline S   U/L   U/L  
    1-9 yr 145-420 ?1 145-420 37?C aw
    10-11 yr 140-560   140-560  
      M F     M F  
    12-13 yr 200-495 105-420     200-495 105-420  
    14-15 yr 130-525 70-230     130-525 70-230  
    16-19 yr 65-260 50-130     65-260 50-130  
Phosphorus, inorganic S,P(H)   mg/dL   mmol/L  
    0-5 days 4.8-8.2 ?0.3229 1.55-2.65 w (Meites, 1989)
    1-3 yr 3.8-6.5   1.25-2.10  
    4-11 yr 3.7-5.6   1.20-1.80  
    12-15 yr 2.9-5.4   0.95-1.75  
    16-19 yr 2.7-4.7   0.90-1.50  
Potassium S   mmol/L   mmol/L  
    0-1 wk 3.2-5.5 ?1 3.3-5.5 (Greeley, Snell, Colaco, et al, 1993)
Increased by hemolysis; serum values systematically higher than plasma values
    1 wk-1 mo 3.4-6.0   3.4-6.0
    1-6 mo 3.5-5.6   3.5-5.6
    6 mo-1 yr 3.5-6.1   3.5-6.1
    >1 yr 3.3-4.6   3.3-4.6
  P(H) 3.5-4.5 mmol/L     3.5-4.5 mmol/L  
Prealbumin (transthyretin) S   mg/dL   mg/L  
    0-5 days 6.0-21.0 ?10 60-210 s (Lockitch, Halstead, Quigley, et al, 1988)
    1-5 yr 14.0-30.0   140-300
    6-9 yr 15.0-30.0   150-300
    10-13 yr 20.0-36.0   200-360
    14-19 22.0-45.0   220-450
Protein, total S   g/dL   g/L  
    Premature 4.3-7.6 ?10 43-76 (Meites, 1989)
    Newborn 4.6-7.4   46-74  
    1-7 yr 6.1-7.9   61-79  
    8-12 yr 6.4-8.1   64-81  
    13-19 yr 6.6-8.2   66-82  
Pyruvate (perchloric acid) W 7-17 yr 0.076 ? 0.026 mmol/L ?1 0.076 ? 0.026 mmol/L (Pianosi et al, 1995)
Sodium S,P (LiH, NH4H)   mmol/L   mmol/L  
Newborn 133-146 ?1 133-146 g (Greely, Snell, Colaco, 1993)
Infant 134-144   134-144
Child 134-143   134-143
Thereafter 135-145   135-145
Thyroid-stimulating hormone S   ?IU/L   ?IU/L  
    0-3 days 1.00-20.00 ?1 1.0-20.00 g (Dugaw, Jack, and Rutledge, 2001)
    3-30 days 0.5-6.5   0.50-6.50
    1-5 mo 0.5-6.0   0.5-6.0
    6 mo-18 yr 0.5-4.5   0.5-4.5
Thyroid uptake of radioactive iodine Activity over thyroid gland 2 hr <6% ?0.01 2 hr <0.06  
6 hr 3-20%   6 hr 0.03-0.20  
24 hr 8-30%   24 hr 0.08-0.30  
Thyroid uptake of technetium-99m Activity over thyroid gland After 24 hr 0.4-3.0% ?0.01 Fractional uptake
0.004-0.030
 
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (hTRH) P 5-60 pg/mL   ?2.759 14-165 pmol/L  
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) S   mg/dL   mg/L  
    Cord blood 1.4-9.4 ?10 14-94  
    1-4 wk 1.0-9.0   10-90  
    1-12 mo 2.0-7.6   20-76  
    1-5 yr 2.9-5.4   29-54  
    5-10 yr 2.5-5.0   25-50  
    10-15 yr 2.1-4.6   21-46  
    Adult 1.5-3.4   15-34  
Thyroxine, total S   ?g/dL   nmol/L  
    0-3 days 8.0-20.0 ?12.9 103-258 G (Dugaw, Jack, and Rutledge, 2001)
    3-30 days 5.0-15.0   64-193
    31-365 days 6.0-14.0   77-180
    1-5 yr 4.5-11.0   58-142
    6-18 yr 4.5-10.0   58-129
Thyroxine, free S   ng/dL   pmol/L  
    0-3 days 2.00-5.00 ?12.9 25.7-64.3 G (Dugaw, Jack, and Rutledge, 2001)
    3-30 days 0.90-2.20   11.6-28.3
    31 days-18 yr 0.7-2.00   9.0-25.7
Thyroxine, total W Newborn screen (filter paper)
6.2-22.0 ?g/dL
  ?12.9 80-283 nmol/L  
Triidothyronine, free S   pg/dL   pmol/L  
    Cord blood 20-240 ?0.01536 0.3-3.7  
    1-3 days 200-610   3.1-9.4  
    6 wk 240-560   3.7-8.6  
    Adult (20-50 yr) 230-660   3.5-10.0  
Triiodothyronine resin uptake test (T3RU) S       Fractional uptake  
  Newborn 26-36%   ?0.01 0.26-0.36  
  Thereafter 26-35%   0.26-0.35  
Triiodothyronine, total S   ng/dL   nmol/L  
    0-3 days 60-300 ?0.0154 0.9-4.7 g (Dugaw, Jack, and Rutledge, 2001)
    4-365 days 90-260   1.4-4.0
    1-6 yr 90-240   1.4-3.7
    7-11 yr 90-230   1.4-3.6
    12-18 yr 100-210   1.5-3.3
Urea nitrogen S,P   mg/dL   mmol urea/L  
    Cord blood 21-40 ?0.357 7.5-14.3  
    Premature (1 wk) 3-25   1.1-9.0  
    Newborn 3-12   1.1-4.3  
    Infant or child 5-18   1.8-6.4  
    Thereafter 7-18   2.5-6.4  
Uric acid S   mg/dL   ?mol/L  
    1-3 yr 1.8-5.0 ?59.48 100-300 (Lockitch, Halstead, Albersheim, et al, 1988)
    4-6 yr 2.2-4.7   130-280
    7-9 yr 2.0-5.0   120-295
    10-11 yr M 2.3-5.4   135-320
    F 3.0-4.7   180-280
    12-13 yr M 2.7-6.7   160-400
    14-15 yr M 2.4-7.8   140-465
    12-15 yr F 3.0-5.8   180-345
    16-19 M 4.0-8.6   235-510
    F 3.0-5.9   180-350

   American Diabetes Association: Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes Care 20:1183–1197, 1997.
   Bhutani VK, Johnson L, Sivieri EM: Predictive ability of a predischarge hour-specific serum bilirubin for subsequent significant hyperbilirubinemia in healthy term and near-term newborns, Pediatrics 103:6–14, 1999.
   Bonnefont JP, Specola NB, Vassault A, et al: The fasting test in children: application to the diagnosis of pathological hypo- and hyperketotic state, Eur J Pediatr 150:80–85, 1990.
   Buck ML: Anticoagulation with warfarin in infants and children, Ann Pharmacother 30:1316–1322, 1996.
   Diaz J, Tornel PL, Martinez P: Reference intervals for blood ammonia in healthy subjects, determined by microdiffusion, Clin Chem 41:1048, 1995.
   Esoterix Endocrinology, Calabasas Hills, CA 91301.
   Dugaw KA, Jack RM, Rutledge J: Pediatric reference ranges for TSH, free T4, total T4, total T3 and T3 uptake on the Vitros ECi analyzer, Clin Chem 47:A108, 2001.
   Farrell PM, Rosenstein BJ, White TB, et al: Guidelines for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in newborns through older adults: cystic fibrosis foundation consensus report, J Pediatr 153:S4–S14, 2008.
   Ghoshal A, Soldin S: Evaluation of the Dade Behring dimension R ? L: integrated chemistry system-pediatric reference ranges, Clin Chim Acta 331:135–146, 2003.
   Gillard BK, Simbala JA, Goodglick L: Reference intervals for amylase isoenzymes in serum and plasma of infants and children, Clin Chem 29:1119–1123, 1983.
   Greeley C, Snell J, Colaco A, et al: Pediatric reference ranges for electrolytes and creatinine, Clin Chem 39:1172, 1993.
   Jedeikin R, Makela SK, Shennan AT, et al: Creatine kinase isoenzymes in serum from cord blood and the blood of healthy full-term infants during the first three postnatal days, Clin Chem 28:317–322, 1982.
   Kaplan EL, Rothermel CD, Johnson DR: Antistreptolysin O and anti-deoxyribonuclease B titers: normal values for children ages 2 to 12 in the United States, Pediatrics 101:86–88, 1998.
   Knight JA, Haymond RE: γ-Glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities compared in serum of normal children and children with liver disease, Clin Chem 27:48–51, 1981.
   Lockitch G, Halstead AC, Albersheim S, et al: Age- and sex-specific pediatric reference intervals for biochemistry analytes as measured with the Ektachem-700 analyzer, Clin Chem 34:1622–1625, 1988.
   Lockitch G, Halstead AC, Wadsworth L, et al: Age-and sex-specific pediatric reference intervals and correlations for zinc, copper, selenium, iron, vitamins A and E, and related proteins, Clin Chem 34:1625–1628, 1988.
   Lockitch G, Halstead AC, Quigley G, et al: Age- and sex-specific pediatric reference intervals: study design and methods illustrated by measurement of serum proteins with the Behring LN Nephelometer, Clin Chem 34:1618–1621, 1988.
   Meites S, editor: Pediatric clinical chemistry, reference (normal) values, ed 3, Washington, DC, 1989, American Association for Clinical Chemistry.
   Muntau A, Streiter M, Kappler M, et al: Age-related reference values for serum selenium concentrations in infants and children, Clin Chem 48:555–560, 2002.
   Nichols Institute Diagnostics, San Juan Capistrano, CA 92675.
   Nir A, Bar-Oz B, Perles Z, et al: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide: reference plasma levels from birth to adolescence. Elevated levels at birth and in infants and children with heart diseases, Acta Paediatr 93:603–607, 2004.
   Pianosi P, Seargeant L, Haworth JC: Blood lactate and pyruvate concentrations, and their ratio during exercise in healthy children: developmental perspective, Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 71:518–522, 1995.
   Rosenthal P, Pesce MA: Long-term monitoring of D-lactic acidosis in a child, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 4:674–676, 1985.
   Sherry B, Jack RM, Weber A, et al: Reference interval for prealbumin for children 2 to 36 months old, Clin Chem 34:1878-1880, 1988.
   Soldin O, Bierbower L, Choi J, et al: Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, total iron binding capacity, hs-CRP, LDL cholesterol and magnesium in children. New reference intervals using the Dade Dimension Clinical Chemistry System, Clin Chim Acta 342:211–217, 2004.
   Soldin SJ, Brugnara C, Wong ED, editors: Pediatric reference intervals, ed 5, Washington, DC, 2005, American Association for Clinical Chemistry.
   Soldin SJ, Hicks JM, Bailey J, et al: Pediatric reference ranges for 25 hydroxy vitamin D during the summer and winter, Clin Chem 43:S200, 1997.
   Soldin SJ, Morse AS: Pediatric reference ranges for albumin and total protein in children <1 year old using the Vitros 500 analyzer, Clin Chem 44:A15, 1998.
   Soldin SJ, Savwoir TV, Guo Y: Pediatric reference ranges for alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in children less than 1 year old on the Vitros 500, Clin Chem 43:S199, 1997.

* A more comprehensive list of reference ranges can be found online at: www.expertconsult.com.

In preparing the reference range listings, a number of abbreviations, symbols, and codes were used (see Table 708-2).

Table 708-7   — COMPOSITION OF COMMONLY USED ORAL AND PARENTERAL SOLUTIONS (RAYMOND ADELMAN AND MICHAEL SOLHAUG) [SEE RELATED CONVERSION TABLES 708-8 TO 708-10]

FLUID CARBOHYDRATE (g/dL) PROTEIN* CALORIES/L Na (mEq/L) K (mEq/L) Cl (mEq/L) HCO3[†] (mEq/L) Ca (mEq/L) P[‡] (mEq/L) Mg (mEq/L) (Osm[?][?]/kg H2O)
ORAL
Apple juice[?] 11.9 0.1 480 0 0.4 26 0 3 4.5 0 700
Coca-Cola 10.9 0 435 4.3 0.1 0 13.4 0 0 0 656
Ginger ale 9.0 0 360 3.5 0.1 0 3.6 0 0 0 565
Grape juice 16.6 0.2 672 0.4 30 0 32 0 0 0 1,027
Grapefruit juice (canned, sugar added) 17.8 0.6 736 0.2 35 0 0 6.5 0 0 591
Milk 4.9 3.5 670 22 36 28 30 60 54 0 260
Orange juice 10.4 0.7 444 0.2 49 0 50 0 0 0 654
Pepsi-Cola 12 0 480 6.5 0.8 0 7.3 0 0 0 0
Pineapple juice (canned) 13.5 0.4 556 0.2 38 0 0 7.5 9 0 783
Prune juice 19 0.4 776 0.9 60 0 0 7 20 0 0
Root beer 0 0 0 3.5 3.9 0 0 0 0 0 588
7UP 8.0 0 320 7.5 0.2 0 0 0.3 0 0 564
Tomato juice (canned, salted) 4.3 0 172 100 59 150 10 3 18 0 592
Gatorade 5.9 0 250 21 2.5 17 0 0 6.8 0 377
Hydralyte 2.5 0 100 84 10 59 15 <1 <1 0 300
Lytren 7.0 0 280 30 25 25 36 4 5 4 267[?]|[?]
Pedialyte 5.0 0 200 30 20 30 28 4 0 4 387
Rhydrate 2.5 0 100 75 25 65 30 0 0 0 305
Resol Solution 2.0 0 83 50 20 50 34 4 5 4 269
Ricelyte Oral Solution (rice syrup solids) 3.0 0 140 50 25 45 34 0 0 0 200
PARENTERAL
Carbohydrate[††] in H2O 5-10 0 200-400 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 266-532
Isotonic saline 0-5 0 0-200 154 0 154 0 0 0 0 292-558
   isotonic saline 2.5-5 0 100-200 77 0 77 0 0 0 0 280-415
3% (M/2) saline 0 0 0 513 0 513 513 0 0 0 969
5% saline 0 0 0 855 0 855 855 0 0 0 1,616
M/6 sodium lactate 0 0 0 167 0 0 167 0 0 0 0
5% sodium bicarbonate 0 0 0 595 0 0 595 0 0 0 0
Lactated Ringer solution 0-5-10 0 0-20 130 4 109 28 3 0 0 261-531-801
0-40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Modified Butler 1 (a) 5 0 200 25 20 22 23 0 3 3 360
Modified Butler 2 (b) 5-10 0 200-400 56 25 49 26 0 12 5 423-719
Talbot (c) 5 0 200 40 35 40 20 0 15 0 409
Human plasma protein fraction (d) 0 5 0 130 2 50 50 0 0 0 0
Blood[#] 0 3 0 95 4 50 40 0 2 1-2 0
Dextran 10% (low molecular weight) [e] 5 0 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Dextran 10% in saline (f) 0 0 0 154 0 154 0 0 0 0 0
Dextran 6% (high molecular weight) [g] 5-10 0 200-400 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Dextran 6% in saline (h) 0 0 0 154 0 154 0 0 0 0 0
Mannitol 20%** 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
AVAILABLE ADDITIVES
Glucose 50% 0.5 g/mL
Sodium chloride 2.5 and 5 mEq/mL
Sodium acetate 2 and 4 mEq/mL
Sodium lactate 5 mEq/mL
Sodium bicarbonate 0.5 (4.2%) mEq/mL and 0.9 (7.5%) mEq/mL
Potassium acetate 2 and 4 mEq/mL
Potassium chloride 2 and 3 mEq/mL
Potassium phosphate 4.4 mEq/mL of potassium and 3 mM/mL of phosphate
Calcium gluconate 10% 9.3 mg (0.465 mEq/mL) elemental calcium
Calcium chloride 10% 27.3 mg (1.4 mEq/mL) elemental calcium
Ammonium chloride 5 mEq/mL
Magnesium sulfate 0.8 mEq/mL, 1 mEq/mL, and 4 mEq/mL available as the 10%, 12.5%, and 50% solutions
SELECTED COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS IN THE USA (POSSIBLE SLIGHT VARIATIONS IN COMPOSITION FROM VALUES IN TABLE)
(a) Ionosol MB in D5W (A), Isolyte P with 5% dextrose (M)
(b) Ionosol B in D5W (A), Electrolyte #2 with 10% invert sugar (C,M), 10% Travert in electrolyte #2 (B)
(c) Ionosol T in D5W (A), Isolyte M (M)
(d) Plasmatein (A), Plasmanate (C)
(e) (f) LMD 10% (A), dextran 40 (C,M), Rheomacrodex (P), Gentran 40 (B)
(g) (h) Dextran 70 (A), Macrodex (P), Gentran 75 in 10% Travert (B)
(A-Abbott; B-Baxter; C-Cutter; M-McGraw; P-Pharmacia)

Sources: Pennington JAT, editor: Bowes & Church’s food values of portions commonly used, ed 17, Philadelphia, 1997, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; Olin BR, editor: Facts and comparisons, Philadelphia, 1993, JB Lippincott; Murray BN, Peterson LJ: Unpublished observations. Additional values in Wendland BE, Arbus GS: Oral fluid therapy: Sodium and potassium content and osmolality of some commercial soups, juices and beverages, Can Med Assoc J 121:564, 1979.

* Protein or amino acid equivalent.

Actual or potential bicarbonate, such as acetate, lactate, or citrate.

Calculated according to a valence of 1.8.

? Osmolality, except for values shown (||), which are osmolarity (in mOsm/L).

? Composition varies slightly, depending on source.

†† Glucose (dextrose, fructose, or invert sugar).

# Red cell contents not included in calculations.

** Also available: mannitol 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%.

Table 708-8   — METHOD FOR CONVERSION OF MILLIGRAMS TO MILLIEQUIVALENTS PER LITER (OR TO MILLIMOLES PER LITER)

mg = milligrams mL = milliliter
g = grams 1 mL = 1.000027 cc
dL = deciliter = 100 mL
  
  
Example: A sample of blood serum contains 10 mg of Ca in 1 dL (100 mL).
The valence of Ca is 2 and the atomic weight is 40. The equivalent weight of Ca is therefore 40 ? 2, or 20.
Milliequivalents of Ca per liter are 10 (mg/dL) ? 10 (dL/L) ? 20, or 5 milliequivalents per liter.
  

Table 708-9   — FACTORS OF CONVERSION OF CONCENTRATION EXPRESSED IN MILLIEQUIVALENTS PER LITER TO MILLIGRAMS PER DECILITER (100 L), AND VICE VERSA, FOR COMMON IONS THAT OCCUR IN PHYSIOLOGIC SOLUTIONS

ELEMENT OR RADICAL mEq/L TO mg/dL mg/dL TO mEq/L
Sodium 1 2.30 1 0.4348
Potassium 1 3.91 1 0.2558
Calcium 1 2.005 1 0.4988
Magnesium 1 1.215 1 0.8230
Chloride 1 3.55 1 0.2817
Bicarbonate (HCO3−) 1 6.1 1 0.1639
Phosphorus valence 1 1 3.10 1 0.3226
Phosphorus valence 1.8 1 1.72 1 0.5814
Sulfur valence 2 1 1.60 1 0.625

Example: To convert milliequivalents of magnesium per liter to milligrams per deciliter (100 mL), multiply by the factor 1.215; to convert milligrams of potassium per deciliter (100 mL) to milliequivalents per liter, multiply by the factor 0.2558.

Table 708-10   — MILLIEQUIVALENTS AND MILLIGRAMS OF CATIONS AND ANIONS PRESENT IN 1 MILLIMOLE OF SALTS COMMONLY USED IN PHYSIOLOGIC SOLUTIONS

SALT SALT (mg/mmol) CATION SALT (mEq/mmol) SALT (mg/mmol) ANION SALT (mEq/mmol) SALT (mg/mmol)
Sodium chloride (NaCl) 58.5 Na+ 1 23.0 Cl− 1 35.5
Potassium chloride (KCl) 74.6 K+ 1 39.1 Cl− 1 35.5
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) 84.0 Na+ 1 23.0 HCO3− 1 61.0
Sodium lactate (CH3CHOHCOONa) 112.0 Na+ 1 23.0 CH3CHOHCOO− 1 89.0
Potassium phosphate monobasic (K2HPO4) 174.2 K+ 1 78.2 HPO42− 2 96.0
Potassium phosphate dibasic (KH2PO4) 136.1 K+ 1 39.1 H2PO4− 1 97.0
Calcium chloride, anhydrous (CaCl2) 111.0 Ca2+ 2 40.0 Cl22− 2 71.0
Calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2?2H2O) 147.0 Ca2+ 2 40.0 Cl22− 2 71.0
Magnesium chloride, anhydrous (MgCl2) 95.2 Mg2+ 2 24.3 Cl22− 2 71.0
Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2?6H2O) 203.3 Mg2+ 2 24.3 Cl22− 2 71.0
Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) 53.5 NH4+ 1 18.0 Cl− 1 35.5

Table 708-11   — FOOD COMPOSITION FOR SHORT METHOD OF DIETARY ANALYSIS (LEWIS A. BARNESS AND JOHN S. CURRAN)*

FOOD AND APPROXIMATE MEASURE WEIGHT (g) FOOD ENERGY (kcal) PROTEIN (g) FAT (g) CARBOHYDRATE (g) CALCIUM (mg) IRON (mg) VITAMIN A (IU) THIAMINE (mg) RIBOFLAVIN (mg) NIACIN (mg) ASCORBIC ACID (mg)
MILK, CHEESE, CREAM; RELATED PRODUCTS
Cheese: blue, cheddar (1 in3), 17 g, cheddar process (1 oz), Swiss (1 oz), cottage (from skim) creamed (   c) 30 105 6 9 1 165 0.2 345 0.01 0.12 Trace 0
115 120 16 5 3 105 0.4 190 0.04 0.28 0.1 0
Cream: half and half (cream and milk) [2 tbs] 30 40 1 4 2 30 Trace 145 0.01 0.04 Trace Trace
For light whipping, add 1 pat butter                        
Milk: whole (3.5% fat) [1 c] fluid, nonfat (skim), and buttermilk (from skim) 245 160 9 9 12 285 0.1 350 0.08 0.42 0.1 2
245 90 9 Trace 13 300 Trace 0 0.10 0.44 0.2 2
Milk beverage (1 c): cocoa, chocolate drink made with skim milk 245 210 8 8 26 280 0.6 300 0.09 0.43 0.3 Trace
For malted milk, add 4 tbs half and half (270 g)                        
Milk desserts, custard (1 c), 248 g, ice cream (8 fl oz), 142 g   290 8 17 29 210 0.4 785 0.07 0.34 0.1 1
Cornstarch pudding (248 g), ice milk (1 c) 187 g   280 9 10 40 290 0.1 390 0.08 0.41 0.3 2
White sauce, medium (   c) 130 215 5 16 12 150 0.2 610 0.06 0.22 0.3 Trace
Egg: 1 Large 50 80 6 6 Trace 25 1.2 590 0.06 0.15 Trace 0
MEAT, POULTRY, FISH, SHELLFISH, RELATED PRODUCTS
Beef, lamb, veal: lean and fat, cooked, including corned beef (3 oz) [all cuts] 85 245 22 16 0 10 2.9 25 0.06 0.19 4.2 0
lean only, cooked; dried beef (2+ oz) [all cuts] 65 140 20 5 0 10 2.4 10 0.05 0.16 3.4 0
Beef, relatively fat, such as steak and rib, cooked (3 oz) 85 350 18 30 0 10 2.4 60 0.05 0.14 3.5 0
Liver: beef, fried (2 oz) 55 130 15 6 3 5 5.0 30,280 0.15 2.37 9.4 15
Pork, lean and fat, cooked (3 oz) [all cuts] 85 325 20 24 0 10 2.6 0 0.62 0.20 4.2 0
lean only, cooked (2+ oz) [all cuts] 60 150 18 8 0 5 2.2 0 0.57 0.19 3.2 0
ham, light cure, lean and fat, roasted (3 oz) 85 245 18 19 0 10 2.2 0 0.40 0.16 3.1 0
Luncheon meats: bologna (2 slices), pork sausage, cooked (2 oz), frankfurter (1), bacon, broiled or fried crisp (3 slices)   185 9 16 0 5 1.3 0 0.21 0.12 1.7 0
Chicken: flesh only, broiled (3 oz) 85 115 20 3 0 10 1.4 80 0.05 0.16 7.4 0
fried (2+ oz) 75 170 24 6 1 10 1.6 85 0.05 0.23 8.3 0
Turkey, light and dark, roasted (3 oz) 85 160 27 5 0 0 1.5 0 0.03 0.15 6.5 0
Salmon, canned (3 oz) 85 130 17 5 0 165 0.7 60 0.03 0.16 6.8 0
Fish sticks, breaded, cooked (3-4) 75 130 13 7 5 10 0.3 0 0.03 0.05 1.2 0
Mackerel, halibut, cooked 85 175 19 10 0 10 0.8 515 0.08 0.15 6.8 0
Bluefish, haddock, herring, perch, shad, cooked (tuna canned in oil, 20 g) 85 160 19 8 2 20 1.0 60 0.06 0.11 4.4 0
Clams, canned; crab meat, canned; lobster; oyster, raw; scallop; shrimp, canned 85 75 14 1 2 65 2.5 65 0.10 0.08 1.5 0
MATURE DRY BEANS AND PEAS, NUTS, PEANUTS, RELATED PRODUCTS
Beans: white with pork and tomato, canned (1 c) 260 320 16 7 50 140 4.7 340 0.20 0.08 1.5 5
Red (128 g), lima (96 g), cowpeas (125 g), cooked (   c)   125 8 0 25 35 2.5 5 0.13 0.06 0.7 0
Nuts: almonds (12), cashews (8), peanuts (1 tbs), peanut butter (1 tbs), pecans (12), English walnuts (2 tbs), coconut (   c) 15 95 3 8 4 15 0.5 5 0.05 0.9 0  
VEGETABLES AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS
Asparagus, cooked, cut spears (   c) 115 25 3 Trace 4 25 0.7 1,055 0.19 0.20 1.6 30
Beans: green (   c), cooked, 60 g; canned, 120 g   15 1 Trace 3 30 0.4 340 0.04 0.06 0.3 8
Lima, immature, cooked (   c) 80 90 6 1 16 40 2.0 225 0.14 0.08 1.0 14
Broccoli spears, cooked (   c) 100 25 3 Trace 4 90 0.8 2,500 0.09 0.20 0.8 90
Brussels sprouts, cooked (   c) 85 30 3 Trace 5 30 1.0 450 0.07 0.12 0.7 75
Cabbage (110 g); cauliflower, cooked (80 g); sauerkraut, canned (150 mg) [reduce ascorbic acid value by    for sauerkraut] [   c]   20 1 Trace 4 35 0.5 80 0.05 0.05 0.3 37
Carrots, cooked (   c) 95 30 1 Trace 7 30 0.6 10,145 0.05 0.05 0.5 6
Corn, 1 ear, cooked (140 g); canned (130 g) [   c]   75 2 Trace 18 5 0.4 315 0.06 0.06 1.1 6
Leafy greens: collards (125 g), dandelions (120 g), kale (75 g), mustard (95 g), spinach (120 g), turnip (100 g cooked, 150 g canned) [   c] cooked and canned)   30 3 Trace 5 175 1.8 8.570 0.11 0.18 0.8 45
Peas, green (   c) 80 60 4 1 10 20 1.4 430 0.22 0.09 1.8 16
Potatoes: baked, boiled (100 g), 10 pieces   85 3 Trace 30 10 0.7 Trace 0.08 0.04 1.5 16
French fried (55 g) [for fried, add 1 tbs cooking oil]                        
Pumpkin, canned (   c) 115 40 1 1 9 30 0.5 7,295 0.03 0.06 0.6 6
Squash, winter, canned (   c) 100 65 2 1 16 30 0.8 4,305 0.05 0.14 0.7 14
Sweet potato, canned (   c) 110 120 2 0 27 25 0.8 8,500 0.05 0.05 0.7 15
Tomato, 1 raw,    c canned,    c juice 150 35 2 Trace 7 14 0.8 1,350 0.10 0.06 1.0 29
Tomato catsup (2 tbs) 35 30 1 Trace 8 10 0.2 480 0.04 0.02 0.6 6
Other, cooked (beets, mushrooms, onions, turnips) [   c] 95 25 1 0 5 20 0.5 15 0.02 0.10 0.7 7
Other, commonly served raw, cabbage (   c, 50 g), celery (3 small stalks, 40 g), cucumber (   , 30 g), radishes (5, 40 g) medium, 50 g), green pepper (   ) carrots, raw (   carrot), lettuce leaves (2 large)   10 Trace Trace 2 15 0.3 100 0.03 0.03 0.2 20
25 10 Trace Trace 2 10 0.2 2,750 0.02 0.02 0.2 2
50 10 1 Trace 2 34 0.7 950 0.03 0.04 0.2 9
FRUITS AND FRUIT PRODUCTS
Cantaloupe (   medium) 385 60 1 Trace 14 25 0.8 6,540 0.08 0.06 1.2 63
Citrus and strawberries: orange (1), grapefruit (   , juice (   c), strawberries (   c), lemon (1), tangerine (1)   50 1 0 13 25 0.4 165 0.08 0.03 0.3 55
Yellow, fresh: apricots (3), peach (2 medium); canned fruit and juice (   c) or dried, cooked, unsweetened: apricot, peaches (   c)   85 0 0 22 10 1.1 1,005 0.01 0.05 1.0 5
Other, dried: dates, pitted (4), figs (2), raisins (   c) 40 120 1 0 31 35 1.4 20 0.04 0.04 0.5 0
Other, fresh apple (1), banana (1), figs (3), pear (1)   80 0 0 21 15 0.5 140 0.04 0.03 0.2 6
GRAIN PRODUCTS
Enriched and whole grain: bread (1 slice, 23 g), biscuit (   ), cooked cereal (   c), prepared cereal (1 oz), graham crackers (2 large), macaroni, noodles, spaghetti (   c, cooked), pancake (1, 27 g), roll (   ), waffle (   , 38 g)   65 2 1 16 20 0.6 10 0.09 0.05 0.7 0
Unenriched bread (1 slice, 23 g), cooked cereal (   c), macaroni, noodles, spaghetti (   c), popcorn (   c), pretzel sticks, small (15), roll (   )   65 2 1 16 10 0.3 5 0.02 0.02 0.3 0
Cake, plain (1 piece), doughnut (1). 45 145 2 5 24 30 0.4 65 0.02 0.05 0.2 0
For iced cake or doughnut, add value for sugar (1 tbs).                        
For chocolate cake, add chocolate (30 g)                        
Cookies, plain (1) 25 120 1 5 18 10 0.2 20 0.01 0.01 0.01 0
Pie crust, single crust (   shell) 20 95 1 6 8 3 0.3 0 0.04 0.03 0.3 0
Flour, white, enriched (1 tbs) 7 25 1 Trace 5 1 0.2 0 0.03 0.02 0.2 0
FATS AND OILS
Butter, margarine (1 pat,    tbs) 7 50 Trace 6 Trace 1 0 230 0 0 0 0
Fats and oils, cooking (1 tbs), French dressing (2 tbs) 14 125 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Salad dressing, mayonnaise-type (1 tbs) 15 80 Trace 9 1 2 0.1 45 Trace Trace Trace 0
SUGARS, SWEETS
Candy, plain (   oz), jam and jelly (1 tbs), syrup (1 tbs), gelatin dessert, plain (   c), beverage, carbonated (1 c)   60 0 0 14 3 0.1 Trace Trace Trace Trace Trace
Chocolate fudge (1 oz), chocolate syrup (3 tbs)   125 1 2 30 15 0.6 10 Trace 0.02 0.1 Trace
Molasses (1 tbs), caramel (   oz)   40 Trace Trace 8 20 0.3 Trace Trace Trace Trace Trace
Sugar (1 tbs) 12 45 0 0 12 0 Trace 0 0 0 0 0
MISCELLANEOUS
Chocolate, bitter (1 oz) 30 145 3 15 8 20 1.9 20 0.01 0.07 0.4 0
Sherbet (   c) 96 130 1 1 30 15 Trace 55 0.01 0.03 Trace 2
SOUPS
Bean, pea (green) [1 c]   150 7 4 22 50 1.6 495 0.09 0.06 1.0 4
Noodle, beef, chicken (1 c)   65 4 2 7 10 0.7 50 0.03 0.04 0.9 Trace
Clam chowder, minestrone, tomato, vegetable (1 c)   90 3 2 14 25 0.9 1,880 0.05 0.04 1.1 3

From Wilson ED, Fisher KH, Fuqua ME: Principles of nutrition, ed 2, New York, 1965, John Wiley & Sons, pp 528–533.

* See related conversion tables (Tables 708-9 to 708-11).

Table 708-12   — NUTRITIVE VALUE OF BABY FOODS (PER SERVING)*

FOOD SERVING (g) ENERGY (kcal) PROTEIN (g) FAT (g) CARBOHYDRATE (g) SODIUM (mg) CALCIUM (mg) IRON (mg) VITAMIN A (IU) THIAMINE A (mg) RIBOFLAVIN (mg) NIACIN (mg) ASCORBIC ACID (mg)
CEREALS
Barley 2.4 9 0.3 0.1 1.8 1 19 1.1   0.07 0.07 0.9 0
High protein 2.4 9 0.9 0.1 1.1 1 17 1.8   0.06 0.07 0.8 0
Mixed 2.4 9 0.3 0.1 1.8 1 18 1.5   0.06 0.07 0.8 0
Oatmeal 2.4 10 0.3 0.2 1.7 1 18 1.8   0.07 0.06 0.9 0
Rice 2.4 9 0.2 0.1 1.9 1 20 1.8   0.06 0.05 0.8 0
DINNERS, JAR
Beef and egg noodle 213 122 5.4 4.0 15.7 37 18 0.9 1,400 0.06 0.08 1.2 3
Chicken and noodles, jr. 213 109 4.1 3.0 16.1 36 36 0.8 1,900 0.06 0.07 1.1 3
Macaroni and ham, jr. 213 127 6.8 2.9 18.0 101 159 0.8 1,100 0.12 0.21 1.7 5
Turkey and rice, jr. 213 104 3.8 2.9 15.3 33 50 0.6 2,200 0.02 0.06 0.6 3
Spaghetti, tomato, beef, jr. 213 135 5.4 2.7 21.6 42 39 1.1 1,500 0.14 0.15 2.3 5
FRUITS
Applesauce, jr. 213 79 0.1 0.0 21.9 5 10 0.4 20 0.03 0.06 0.1 81
Applesauce, apricots, jr. 220 104 0.5 0.5 27.3 6 13 0.6 745 0.03 0.07 0.3 39
Bananas, tapioca, jr. 220 147 0.8 0.4 39.1 21 17 0.7 100 0.03 0.04 0.5 57
Peaches 220 157 1.3 0.4 41.6 10 11 0.6 400 0.03 0.07 1.4 42
Pears 213 93 0.6 0.2 24.7 4 18 0.5 70 0.03 0.06 0.4 47
MEATS, POULTRY
Beef 99 105 14.3 4.9 0 65 8 1.6 100 0.01 0.16 3.3 2
Chicken 99 148 14.6 9.5 0 50 54 1.0 200 0.01 0.16 3.4 2
Ham 99 123 14.9 6.6 0 66 5 1.0 30 0.14 0.19 2.8 2
Lamb 99 111 15.0 5.2 2.5 73 7 1.6 30 0.02 0.20 3.2 2
Turkey 99 128 15.2 7.0 0 72 28 1.3 600 0.02 0.25 3.4 2
EGG YOLKS 94 191 9.4 16.3 0.9 37 72 2.6 1,200 0.07 0.25 1.45 1
VEGETABLES
Beans 206 51 2.5 0.3 11.8 3 133 2.2 900 0.04 0.21 0.7 17
Beets 128 43 1.7 0.1 9.8 106 18 0.4 40 0.01 0.06 0.2 4
Carrots 213 67 1.7 0.4 15.4 104 49 0.8 25,000 0.05 0.09 1.1 12
Mixed 213 88 3.1 0.8 17.4 77 24 0.9 9,000 0.06 0.07 1.4 5
Peas 213 113 7.0 1.1 19.0 15 34 1.9 700 0.15 0.13 2.0 9
Squash 213 51 1.8 0.4 12.0 3 50 0.7 4,000 0.02 0.14 0.8 17
Sweet potatoes 220 113 2.4 0.3 30.7 49 35 0.8 15,000 0.06 0.08 0.8 21

Data from Pennington JAT, editor: Bowes and Church’s food values of portions commonly used, ed 17, Philadelphia, 1997, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

* See related conversion tables (Tables 708-9 to 708-11).

Table 708-13   — EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURE READINGS (CELSIUS [C] AND FAHRENHEIT [F])*

C F C F C F C F
0 32.0 37.2 99.0 39.2 102.6 41.2 106.2
20 68.0 37.4 99.3 39.4 102.9 41.4 106.5
30 86.0 37.6 99.7 39.6 103.3 41.6 106.9
31 87.8 37.8 100.1 39.8 103.7 41.8 107.2
32 89.6 38.0 100.4 40.0 104.0 42.0 107.6
33 91.7 38.2 100.8 40.2 104.4 43.0 109.4
34 93.2 38.4 101.2 40.4 104.7 44.0 111.2
35 95.0 38.6 101.5 40.6 105.1 100.0 212.0
36 96.8 38.8 101.8 40.8 105.4    
37 98.6 39.0 102.2 41.0 105.8    

* To convert Celsius (centigrade) readings to Fahrenheit, multiply by 1.8 and add 32. To convert Fahrenheit readings to Celsius, subtract 32 and divide by 1.8.

  

Figure 708-1  Nomogram for the estimation of surface area. The surface area is indicated where a straight line that connects the height and weight levels intersects the surface area column, or if the patient is roughly of average size, from the weight alone (enclosed area).
(Nomogram modified from the data of E. Boyd by C.D. West. See also Briars GL, Bailey BJ: Surface area estimation: pocket calculator v nomogram, Arch Dis Child 70:246–247, 1994.)

  

Figure 708-2  Relationships among body weight (lb), body surface area, and adult dosage. The surface area values correspond with those set forth by Crawford JD, Terry ME, Rourke GM: Simplification of drug dosage calculation by application of the surface area principle, Pediatrics 5:783–790, 1950. Note that the 100% adult dose is for a patient weighing approximately 140 lb and having a surface area of approximately 1.7 m2.
(From Talbot NB, Richie RH, Crawford JH: Metabolic homeostasis: a syllabus for those concerned with the care of patients, Cambridge, MA, 1959, Harvard University Press.)

  

Figure 708-3  Nomogram for risk assessement of hyperbilirubinemia.
(From Bhutani VK, Johnson L, Sivieri EM: Predictive ability of a predischarge hour-specific serum bilirubin for subsequent significant hyperbilirubinemia in healthy term and near-term newborns, Pediatrics 103:6−14, 1999, Fig 2, p 9.)

Acknowledgments

The author gratefully acknowledges the original contributions of Michael A. Pesce upon which portions of this chapter are based.

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