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Glossary


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Glossary

abstract interface

A description of the functionality supported by a service, but not the protocols used to access the service. An abstract interface corresponds to a service type. In a Web service, the abstract interface defines the operations the service supports and the formats of the messages that must be exchanged. A WSDL portType defines the abstract interface.

API
See [application programming interface]

application adapter

A program that provides an interface to a legacy application. It maps an open API to a proprietary API.

application programming interface

A programming mechanism that allows an application or system function to expose its capabilities to other applications. An API supports application-to-application communication.

application server

A server that provides a runtime framework for application services. An application server manages an application’s life cycle and coordinates the utilization of resources. An application server enables optimized performance, scalability, reliability, and availability.

asymmetric encryption

A process in which a message is encrypted and decrypted using two keys (one public, one private). If the message is encrypted with the public key, it can be decrypted only with the private key. Similarly, if the message is encrypted with the private key, it can be decrypted only with the public key. Also known as public key encryption.

asynchronous

Not at the same time. In asynchronous application communication, the two applications don’t need to communicate simultaneously. One application sends a message. The other receives the message when it’s ready. Used with MOM systems.

atomic transaction

A transaction in which all tasks must complete successfully or else the entire transaction must be reset.

authentication

The process used to verify a user’s or application’s identity.

authorization

The process used to determine whether an authenticated entity has permission to perform a particular action or function.

binary data format

A format in which information is encoded as a series of 0’s and 1’s. Binary formats can be processed only by applications that understand the format. Binary formats are more compact than text formats.

bind

The operation that a service consumer performs to connect a client to a service. One of three basic operations in the SOA.

binding

The WSDL how part. A WSDL element that maps a portType to a concrete set of protocols. The binding specifies the technical details of how to communicate with a service.

BPEL4WS

Business Process Execution Language for Web Services. A Web services orchestration language developed by BEA, IBM, and Microsoft.

BPMI

Business Process Management Initiative. A consortium dedicated to the development of business process management standards.

BPML

Business Process Modeling Language. A BPMI standard. An XML vocabulary for modeling business processes. BPML relies on WSDL and WSCI to describe Web services interactions. It defines an execution language that specifies the runtime semantics of interactions, and it defines an abstract execution model to manage the orchestration of those interactions.

BPSS

Business Process Specification Schema. Part of the ebXML framework. Managed by UN/CEFACT. An XML language used to describe the choreographed interchange of messages that must be exchanged to complete the specified business transaction.

BTP

Business Transaction Protocol. An OASIS Committee Specification. An XML-based transaction coordination system that supports asynchronous, loosely coupled, long-term transactions. BTP supports atomic and cohesive transactions.

business model

The way in which a company operates and makes money.

bytecode

The Java intermediate code. Bytecode executes in a JVM.

canonical

The simplest way to represent something. You must transform an XML document into its canonical form before you can create a digital signature.

choreography

The planning and arrangement of movements into a meaningful whole. In Web services, choreography refers to the planning and arrangement of interactions among multiple Web services, especially the structured composition of services to effect a business process.

See also [orchestration]

CIL

Common Intermediate Language. The C# intermediate code. All .NET languages compile into CIL. CIL executes in a VES.

CIM

Common Information Model. A DMTF standard that defines a common management data model that is independent of any particular management framework. This data model defines the structure and format of management information.

circle of trust

An agreement among business affiliates to support a federated identity scheme according to defined trust relationships. The term is associated with the Liberty Alliance federal identity scheme.

CLI

Common Language Infrastructure. An ISO international standard for the C# language runtime platform.

client

An application that calls a service. The requester in a client/server relationship.

client/server

A style of communication between two computer programs in which one program (the client) sends a request to another program (the server), which responds to the request.

CLR

Common Language Runtime. Microsoft’s runtime environment for C# and .NET on Windows. The CLR implements the CLI international standard.

cohesive transaction

A transaction in which a certain set of tasks must complete successfully or else the entire transaction must be reset.

collection

A programming language structure containing a group of objects.

command line tools

Nonvisual development tools executed from a command line prompt or invoked through a script. Command line tools are typically very powerful but cryptic.

communication middleware

A form of middleware used for application-to-application communication.

confidentiality

The ability to prevent unauthorized access to data or the contents of a message.

container

An XML Schema type structure containing a group of simple or complex types. Also a runtime framework for application servers.

See also [EJB container]
See also [runtime container]

context

Information about the current state of an activity.

CORBA

Common Object Request Broker Architecture. An RPC-style distributed object middleware system developed and standardized by OMG. Available for most platforms, supporting many languages.

CPPA

Collaboration Protocol Profile and Agreement. An OASIS standard. Part of the ebXML framework. An XML language for specifying the details of how a company supports B2B integration.

datatype

The definition of the kind of data within an object or element, such as text, integer, decimal number, or date.

DCE RPC

Distributed Computing Environment Remote Procedure Call. An RPC-style middleware system developed and standardized by OSF (now The Open Group). Available for most platforms, supporting C, C++, and Java.

DCOM

Distributed Component Object Model. Microsoft’s native distributed object technology for Windows that predates .NET. DCOM communicates using Microsoft RPC. Available for all Windows platforms, supporting any programming language. Available but rarely seen on other platforms.

deployment descriptor

A file that describes the deployment configuration of a service.

digital signature

A digital value that represents someone’s handwritten signature used for nonrepudiation. A digital signature is the value produced when you apply a signing algorithm to some data using the signatory’s private key. The receiver can verify the signature by applying a verification algorithm to the same data, this time using the signatory’s public key. The generated value should match the digital signature.

DMTF

Distributed Management Task Force. An industry organization focused on developing standards for the management of desktop, enterprise, and Internet environments.

DNS

Domain Name System. An essential piece of the Internet infrastructure. DNS maps an abstract network address to a physical TCP/IP network location

document-style

An unconstrained way to structure SOAP messages. Document-style messages do not indicate what operation to invoke.

DotGNU

An open source project sponsored by the Free Software Foundation and the GNU Project to port C# and .NET to Linux and UNIX.

DSS

Digital Signature Service. A trust service that can create and verify XML signatures. An OASIS work-in-progress.

dynamic binding

The act of mapping an abstract interface to specific protocols and a specific service implementation at runtime.

dynamic proxy

A client proxy generated at runtime.

EAI

Enterprise application integration. A comprehensive framework for integrating multiple application systems. EAI solves a much larger problem than just basic application integration. EAI uses extraction, aggregation, routing, and dissemination of information based on business rules. EAI tends to operate outside the production process and communicates using MOM and message brokers.

ebMS

ebXML Message Service protocol. An OASIS standard. Part of the ebXML framework. An XML protocol that extends SOAP to add support for attachments, security, and reliable message delivery.

ebXML

Electronic Business using Extensible Markup Language. A standard XML-based Web services framework designed to support B2B integration. It greatly expands the power of electronic data interchange (EDI). It was a joint effort of OASIS and UN/CEFACT.

See also [ebMS]
See also [CPPA]
See also [BPSS]
See also [ebXML Registry and Repository]

ebXML Registry and Repository

A registry and repository for Web services. An OASIS standard. Part of the ebXML framework. It manages information about service types and service providers. It also provides a repository for service descriptions, schemata, CPPA descriptions, BPSS specifications, and other metadata. An ebXML registry is an ebXML Web service.

ECMA

ECMA International. An industry association dedicated to the standardization of information and communications systems. Responsible for standardizing C#.

encoded

Data that have been processed according to a set of encoding rules.

See also [encoding]

encoding

A set of unambiguous rules used to represent data.

encryption

The process of changing data to make it indecipherable to all except the intended recipient. Encryption ensures message integrity and confidentiality.

endpoint

The networking access point of an application.

EJB

Enterprise JavaBeans. A J2EE component model for industrial-strength, secure, transactional business applications.

EJB container

A J2EE application server container that hosts EJB components.

federated identity

A single identity credential that can map to different identity information on different systems within a circle of trust. Enables single sign-on across security domains. The term is associated with the Liberty Alliance.

find

The operation that a service consumer performs to find or discover a service through a service broker. One of three basic operations in the SOA.

firewall

A mechanism used to protect a corporate network from unauthorized or unwelcome access. A firewall screens incoming messages and determines whether to let them pass.

framework

An environment that provides a partial solution, usually automating a particularly tedious or difficult part of an application project. There are development frameworks and runtime frameworks. A development framework provides prebuilt code and application skeletons that developers can use to implement solutions quickly and consistently. A runtime framework often implements middleware functionality.

FTP

File Transfer Protocol. An IETF standard application protocol used to transfer files.

GXA

Global XML Web Services Architecture. A set of Microsoft technologies and SOAP extensions for advanced Web services functionality associated with attachments, discovery, routing, security, and transaction coordination.

hash table

A complex datatype structured as a table of keys associated with values.

HTML

Hypertext Markup Language. A W3C standard markup language used to create and format Web pages. The HTML vocabulary defines formatting information.

HTTP

Hypertext Transfer Protocol. An IETF standard application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the protocol that Web browsers use to communicate with Web servers. Most Web services communicate using HTTP.

HTTPS

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure. HTTP running over SSL/TLS. A secure, encrypted, authenticated version of HTTP.

IDL
See [Interface Definition Language]

IETF

Internet Engineering Task Force. The standards organization that develops and maintains Internet protocols and technologies, such as TCP/IP, DNS, SSL/TLS, HTTP, SMTP, and FTP. The IETF also works with NIST on encryption and digital signature technologies.

implementation

An occurrence of a thing, as opposed to the definition of the thing.

See also [type]

infrastructure-level Web service

A Web services infrastructure product that is implemented as a Web service. Examples include a UDDI registry service and a single sign-on service. The collection of Web services that supports your infrastructure forms a shared service grid.

integrity

The ability to prevent unauthorized modification of data or a message.

Interface definition language

IDL. A machine-readable language used to describe the interfaces to a service. Many RPC-style middleware systems use IDL to describe a service contract. The IDL defines a service’s signature. IDL can be compiled to generate a client proxy. Sample IDL languages include OMG IDL (for CORBA), Microsoft IDL, and DCE IDL.

ISO

International Standards Organization. A de jure international standards organization. ISO has published the CLI international standard.

Java Community Process

JCP. The formal process used to develop and revise Java technology. The JCP is organized by Sun. Anyone can participate.

JAX-RPC

Java APIs for XML based RPC. A WSDL-aware RPC-style Java API for SOAP. JAX-RPC makes SOAP look and feel like RMI.

JAXM

Java API for XML Messaging. An XML-centric, message-oriented Java API for SOAP. JAXM does not support WSDL.

JAXR

Java API for XML Registries. A Java API that can be used to access either UDDI or ebXML registries.

JCA

J2EE Connector Architecture. A standard plug-in architecture for application adapters in J2EE application servers.

JCA adapter

An application adapter that conforms to JCA and can plug in to a J2EE application server.

JCP
See [Java Community Process]

JMS

Java Messaging Service. A standard Java API for MOM middleware.

JRE

Java Runtime Environment. The runtime environment for Java. A JRE consists of a JVM, a class loader, and the Java runtime security framework. JREs are available for most operating systems and hardware platforms.

JSP

JavaServer Pages. A Java component model that permits you to embed Java code within an HTML page. JSPs execute within a servlet engine.

JVM

Java Virtual Machine. The virtual machine in the Java runtime environment that interprets Java bytecode.

JWSDL

Java API for WSDL. A Java API used to create, inspect, and manipulate WSDL documents.

Kerberos

An authentication protocol first developed at MIT and standardized by OSF (now The Open Group). It is the primary authentication mechanism used in Windows and DCE. A Kerberos authentication token is called a ticket. (In Greek mythology, Kerberos is the three-headed dog that guards the gates to the underworld.)

key management

The process used to manage encryption keys, including secret keys and public and private keys.

Liberty

An infrastructure that supports federated identity. Liberty permits you to create a circle of trust with select business partners to simplify cross-domain security management.

lifecycle

The management of an application program, including loading it into memory, allocating the system resources it needs, and removing it when it’s complete.

linked list

A complex datatype in which multiple data objects are arranged in a list, and each object maintains a reference to the next object in the list.

literal encoding

An encoding system for SOAP messages in which the messages are encoded using a specified XML Schema description.

loosely coupled

Refers to the relaxed dependency between two communicating applications. If you modify either application, it usually doesn’t cause the connection to break.

markup language

A language syntax that uses tags to structure a document or to indicate layout and styling. Examples include XML, HTML, WML, and VoiceXML.

meta-markup language

A markup language used to define other markup languages. XML is a meta-markup language.

Microsoft RPC

The native RPC-style communications system for Windows platforms. DCOM communicates using Microsoft RPC.

middleware

A software package that sits between your application code and its underlying platform, providing easy access to core system facilities such as the network, storage, and processors.

message-oriented middleware

MOM. A middleware system that uses an asynchronous, peer-based style of communication. Applications send and receive messages. Examples include IBM WebSphereMQ, Microsoft MQ, and Tibco Rendezvous.

MOM
See [message-oriented middleware]

Mono

An open source project sponsored by Ximian to port C# and .NET to Linux and UNIX.

NASSL

Network Accessible Service Specification Language. A Web service description language for SOAP, developed by IBM, predating WSDL.

.NET

Microsoft’s application platform based on the C# programming language. .NET provides integrated support for SOAP-based Web services.

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technologies. A nonregulatory U.S. federal agency that, among other things, develops encryption and digital signature standards.

nonrepudiation

The ability to prove that a particular action occurred—for example, that a particular user or application sent a message. Digital signatures support nonrepudiation.

OASIS

Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards. A consortium that develops standards for Web services and e-business, including UDDI, DSS, WS-Security, WS-RM, WSRP, and ebXML.

OASIS Committee Specification

An OASIS specification that has been approved by its technical committee but not yet approved as an OASIS standard.

OASIS Standard

An approved OASIS standard.

OMI

Open Management Interface. A management framework specification from HP and webMethods. OMI manages distributed applications systems using Web services. Submitted to OASIS. The OASIS WSDM Technical Committee may use OMI as input.

ONC RPC

Open Network Computing Remote Procedure Call. An RPC-style middleware system developed by Sun and standardized by IETF. Available for most platforms, supporting C, C++, and Java.

operating platform

An amalgam of the many different infrastructure technologies that host your application systems, such as operating system, programming language, application server, and security infrastructure.

orchestration

The arrangement of events to achieve a certain goal or effect. In Web services, orchestration refers to the arrangement of interactions among multiple Web services, especially the structured composition of services to effect a business process.

See also [choreography]

peer

An equal participant in peer-to-peer communications. A peer can act as either a sender (client) or a receiver (server).

PKI

Public key infrastructure. A security infrastructure for the Internet designed by IETF and based on digital certificates and public key cryptography. PKI relies on a system of registration authorities that verify the validity of the parties involved in a secure Internet transaction.

port

The WSDL where part. A WSDL element that defines the endpoint of a Web service implementation. The Web service implements a specific binding of a portType.

portlet

An application running with a portal.

portType

The WSDL what part. A WSDL element that defines a Web service. A portType describes the abstract interface of the Web service. A portType represents a Web service type.

principal

A security identifier. A principal represents a user, and it provides a reference key that can be used to verify the rights and privileges that have been granted to the user.

protocol

A set of rules for information exchange. You use a number of different protocols at different levels of communication (message, application, network, etc.).

proxy

An intermediary application or routine that acts as a liaison between a client and a server. In Web services, a client proxy is a communications routine, generated from a WSDL file, that a client application uses to invoke a service. You can also use proxies to intercept messages to perform various security or other middle ware functions.

reference architecture

A description of the design of a system. An architecture identifies the functional components of a system. It also defines the relationships among those components and establishes a set of constraints upon each.

register

The operation a service provider uses to register or advertise a service with a service broker. One of three basic operations in the SOA.

registry

A database that provides information about registered resources. A registry supports the advertising and discovery function in an SOA. A service provider advertises its services in the registry. Service consumers can search the registry to discover services that match their needs.

reliable message delivery

The ability to guarantee the proper delivery of messages, in the right sequence, within an acceptable time frame.

See also [WS-RM]

remote procedure call

RPC. A middleware system that uses a synchronous, client/server-based style of communication. A client uses RPC to invoke a procedure on a remote system. RPC makes the remote procedure appear as if it were a local procedure.

RMI

Remote Method Invocation. The native RPC-style communication system used by Java.

RNP

Reliable network provider. A service provider that provides a reliable messaging service.

RPC
See [remote procedure call]

RPC-style

A constrained way to structure SOAP messages to simulate an RPC invocation. The request message contains a method name and a set of parameters. The response message contains a return value.

runtime container

A runtime framework in an application server that hosts applications and manages application lifecycle. Some examples are EJB container, servlet engine, and SOAP runtime container. A SOAP runtime container hosts the applications that implement Web services.

SAAJ

SOAP with Attachments API for Java. A low-level Java API for SOAP.

SAML

Security Assertions Markup Language. An OASIS standard. An XML syntax for representing security assertions for authentication, authorization, and attributes. Also defines a set of trust services for single sign-on and entitlement.

SCL

SOAP Contract Language. A Web services description language for SOAP, developed by Microsoft, predating WSDL.

screen scraping

A technique used to create an application adapter by encapsulating a human-oriented user interface. The adapter simulates human interaction.

security token

A token that represents a decision made by a security authority.

service

An application that exposes its functionality through an application programming interface (API). A service is designed to be consumed by software rather than by humans.

service broker

An entity that facilities the advertising and discovery of services. A role within the SOA.

service consumer

An entity that consumes a service. One of three roles within the SOA.

service contract

A machine-readable description of the API used to access a service. A service contract can be compiled into client proxy code.

service grid

A set of Web services that implements part of your Web services infrastructure.

Service-Oriented Architecture

SOA. A set of common practices for service-based applications. The SOA defines mechanisms for describing services, advertising and discovering services, and communicating with services. Most RPC-based middleware systems use the SOA.

service provider

An entity that provides a service. One of three roles within the SOA.

servlet

A lightweight Java component model for Web applications. A servlet executes in a servlet engine.

servlet engine

An application server or container that hosts JSPs and servlets.

signature

The concrete definition of a service interface, including the procedure name, an ordered list of parameter names and types, the return type, and permitted exceptions.

See also [digital signature]

single sign-on

A single sign-on service allows a user to log in once with a recognized security authority and use the returned login credentials to access multiple resources for some predefined period of time.

SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. An IETF standard application protocol used to send electronic mail.

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol. An IETF standard application protocol used to monitor and manage devices connected to a TCP/IP network.

SOA
See [service-oriented architecture]

SOAP

Simple Object Access Protocol. The most popular XML protocol used to support communication in Web services. SOAP provides a simple, consistent, and extensible mechanism that allows one application to send an XML message to another application. Being standardized by W3C.

SOAP body

A mandatory part of a SOAP message that contains the message payload.

SOAPbuilders

An informal organization of SOAP vendors working to solve SOAP interoperability issues.

SOAP encoding

An encoding system for SOAP messages in which the messages are encoded using the SOAP encoding data model.

SOAP engine

A Web services platform. A product that implements the SOAP specification. Also known as a SOAP stack, SOAP server, or SOAP implementation.

SOAP envelope

The root element in a SOAP message. The SOAP message container.

SOAP header

An optional part of a SOAP message that usually contains system-level information, such as security credentials, transaction context, message correlation information, session identifiers, or management information. If no system-level information is required, the SOAP header can be omitted from the message.

SOAP header processor

A routine that processes SOAP headers, usually performing middleware functionality.

SOAP implementation

A Web services platform. A product that implements the SOAP specification. Also known as a SOAP stack, SOAP server, or SOAP engine.

SOAP intermediary

An application or service that is both a SOAP receiver and a SOAP sender. An intermediary sits between the sender and the receiver. It usually processes SOAP headers and performs middleware functions.

SOAP message processor

A part of a SOAP runtime system that is responsible for processing SOAP messages. It listens for requests and processes them according to the settings defined in the associated deployment descriptor.

SOAP receiver

An application that receives a SOAP message.

SOAP RPC convention

Also called SOAP RPC representation. An optional SOAP convention used to simulate RPC requests and responses. The convention uses the RPC-style message structure.

SOAP sender

An application that sends a SOAP message.

SOAP server

A Web services platform. A product that implements the SOAP specification. Also known as a SOAP stack, SOAP engine, or SOAP implementation.

SOAP stack

A Web services platform. A product that implements the SOAP specification. Also known as a SOAP engine, SOAP server, or SOAP implementation.

software-as-a-service

A business model in which a software provider licenses software as a hosted service.

SSL/TLS

Secure Sockets Layer/Transport Layer Security. A secure network protocol that supports encrypted, authenticated communications across the Internet. SSL was developed by Netscape. TLS is the IETF standard. It provides message integrity and confidentiality at the network layer. It also optionally supports strong authentication.

style sheet

A document that provides instructions on how to display, modify, or restructure a document.

symmetric encryption

An encryption process in which a message is encrypted and decrypted using the same key. The key must be exchanged in a separate transmission. Also known as single key or secret key encryption.

synchronous

At the same time. In synchronous application communication, the two applications must communicate simultaneously. A client issues a request and waits for a response. The server must handle the request immediately. If the server is not available, the request fails.

tag

A markup language construct that provides a label and container for an element. An element has a start tag and an end tag.

taxonomy

A classification scheme. In the UDDI and ebXML registries, you can categorize businesses, services, and service types using any number of taxonomies.

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The pervasive network protocol that supports the Internet.

tightly coupled

Refers to the tight dependency between two communicating applications. If you modify either application, it often causes the connection to break.

tModel

Technical model. A UDDI entity that represents an abstract or reusable resource. You use tModels to represent service types. The tModel points to the specification (WSDL) that defines the service type. You also use tModels to represent identifier and categorization taxonomies.

token

A digital value that represents something, such as a login credential.

See also [security token]

traditional middleware

Middleware systems such as RPC, DCOM, CORBA, RMI, and MOM.

trust service

A Web service that provides security functions for your applications. Examples include a single sign-on service, a key management service, and a digital signature service.

type

The definition of a thing as opposed to an actual occurrence of a thing.

See also [implementation]

UBR
See [UDDI Business Registry]

UBR node

A node within the UBR. All nodes contain identical information.

UDDI
See [Universal Description, Discovery & Integration]

UDDI4J

An open source UDDI client API for Java.

UDDI.org

An informal consortium of vendors that developed the UDDI specifications. The group submitted the specifications to OASIS and has since disbanded.

UDDI Business Registry

UBR. A public UDDI Web services registry. The UBR is replicated across multiple nodes operated by IBM, Microsoft, NTT, and SAP.

UDDI Operators Council

A formal business partnership among the companies that operate nodes in the UBR.

UML

Unified Modeling Language. An OMG standard for modeling software artifacts.

Uniform Resource Identifier

URI. A compact, formatted name that identifies a Web resource. You use this name to reference, access, and share a resource.

Uniform Resource Locator

URL. A URI that can be resolved to a physical network address.

Uniform Resource Name

URN. A URI that is simply a name. It cannot be resolved to a physical network address.

Universal Description, Discovery & Integration

UDDI. An OASIS standard. A registry for Web services. A UDDI registry manages information about service types and service providers. A UDDI service is a Web service.

URI
See [Uniform Resource Identifier]

URI scheme

The first part of a URI. Indicates the application protocol used to access the resource.

URL
See [Uniform Resource Locator]

URN
See [Uniform Resource Name]

VES

Virtual Execution System. The virtual machine in the .NET runtime system (CLR) that interprets CIL.

vocabulary

The set of words within a language. In markup languages, a vocabulary defines the set of tags that can be used within the language. A meta-markup language permits you to define your own tags.

VoiceXML

A W3C standard markup language for use with interactive voice response (IVR) applications and other telephony systems.

W3C

The World Wide Web Consortium. A consortium that develops standards for the World Wide Web, including HTML, XML, SOAP, and related technologies.

W3C Candidate Recommendation

A W3C draft specification that is two steps from being a standard. From the W3C site: “A Candidate Recommendation is work that has received significant review from its immediate technical community. It is an explicit call to those outside of the related Working Groups or the W3C itself for implementation and technical feedback.”

W3C Note

A specification that has been submitted to and published by the W3C. Publication of a Note does not imply endorsement from W3C. From the W3C site: “A Note is a dated, public record of an idea, comment, or document. A Note does not represent commitment by W3C to pursue work related to the Note.”

W3C Proposed Recommendation

A W3C draft specification that is one step from being a standard. From the W3C site: “A Proposed Recommendation is work that (1) represents consensus within the group that produced it and (2) has been proposed by the Director to the Advisory Committee for review.”

W3C Recommendation

A W3C standard. From the W3C site: “A Recommendation is work that represents consensus within W3C and has the Director’s stamp of approval. W3C considers that the ideas or technology specified by a Recommendation are appropriate for widespread deployment and promote W3C’s mission.”

W3C Working Draft

A W3C draft specification representing work in progress. From the W3C site: “A Working Draft represents work in progress and a commitment by W3C to pursue work in this area. A Working Draft does not imply consensus by a group or W3C.”

WBEM

Web-Based Enterprise Management. A DTMF standard that extends CIM to bring it more in line with the Web. The xmlCIM specification defines CIM in terms of XML. The CIM Operations over HTTP specification defines a transport mechanism that allows you to send CIM commands to management agents over HTTP.

Web
See [World Wide Web]

Web API

An API for a Web service. A Web API lets applications communicate using XML and the Web.

Web resource

Any type of named information object, such as a word processing document, a digital picture, a Web page, an e-mail account, or an application. Every Web resource is identified by a URI.

Web server

A server that hosts and provides access to Web resources. A Web server contains an HTTP server.

Web service

An application that provides a Web API. A Web service is a Web resource that is designed to be accessed by applications. It supports application-to-application communications using XML and the Web.

Web service implementation

A specific Web service. A Web service implementation implements a Web service type.

Web service type

A definition of a Web service. The type corresponds to its abstract interface, as defined by a WSDL portType. Multiple service providers can implement the same Web service type.

Web services application templates

The types of applications and initiatives that you can build using Web services.

Web Services Description Language

WSDL. An XML language that describes a Web service. A WSDL document describes what functionality a Web service offers, how it communicates, and where to find it. A WSDL file is the service contract for a Web service. WSDL is being standardized by W3C.

Web services infrastructure

Products that implement XML and Web services technologies. You use these products to build, deploy, manage, and use Web services.

Web services management extension

A Web services infrastructure product that adds advanced features to a Web services platform, such as security, version control, and monitoring.

Web services platform

A Web services infrastructure product that consists of a SOAP runtime environment and the tools you need to develop, deploy, and manage Web services.

Web services technologies

The technologies that provide the foundation for Web services. These technologies include SOAP, WSDL, UDDI, and related technologies.

Web site

A group of Web resources that are designed to be accessed by humans.

white space

Any characters in an XML document that have no semantic meaning, such as blanks and line feeds.

WML

Wireless Markup Language. A standard markup language for specifying content and formatting information for display in browsers on a wireless device. WML is managed by the Open Mobile Alliance.

World Wide Web

The Web. An Internet application that supports an immensely scalable information space filled with interconnected Web resources.

WS-Choreography

A W3C effort to define a standard Web services choreography language. The WS-Choreography Working Group may base its work on WSCI.

WSCI

Web Services Choreography Interface. A choreography language developed by BEA, Intalio, SAP, and Sun. A W3C Note. The W3C WS-Choreography Working Group may base its work on WSCI.

WS-Coordination

A SOAP extension from BEA, IBM, and Microsoft. It defines a coordination framework that allows multiple participants to reach agreement on the outcome of a distributed activity.

WSDL
See [Web Services Description Language]

WSDL compiler

A tool that compiles a WSDL definition and generates application code.

WSDM

Web Services Distributed Management. A management framework that uses Web services to manage Web services. An OASIS work-in-progress.

WSFL

Web Services Flow Language. A Web services orchestration language from IBM used as input to BPEL4WS.

See also [BPEL4WS]

WSIA

Web Services Interactive Applications. Part of the OASIS WSRP specification that defines Web services standard behaviors for interactive interfaces to Web services. An OASIS technical committee.

See also [WSRP]

WS-I

Web Services-Interoperability Organization. A vendor-sponsored consortium focused on promoting Web services interoperability across platforms, operating systems, and programming languages.

WS-I Basic Profile

A WS-I profile, based on SOAP 1.1, WSDL 1.1, and UDDI 2.0, that defines a set of constraints that reduce interoperability problems.

WS-RM

Web Services Reliable Messaging. A SOAP extension for reliable message delivery. An OASIS work-in-progress.

WSRP

Web Services for Remote Portals. A Web services framework that enables “pluggable portlets.” It defines a generic adapter that enables any WSRP-compliant portal to consume and display any WSRP-compliant Web service, without the need to develop a specific portlet for each service. An OASIS work-in-progress.

WSS

Web Services Security. A SOAP extension that defines a standard way to represent security information in a SOAP message. An OASIS work-in-progress based on WS-Security.

WS-Security

A SOAP extension that defines a standard way to represent security information in a SOAP message. Based on a specification developed by IBM, Microsoft, and VeriSign. An OASIS work-in-progress.

See also [WSS]

WS-Transaction

A SOAP extension defined by BEA, IBM, and Microsoft that works in conjunction with WS-Coordination to define the protocols used to implement atomic transactions and loosely coupled business activities.

XACML

XML Access Control Markup Language. An OASIS standard. A policy-oriented XML language for defining access policies and rules.

XCBF

XML Common Biometric Format. An OASIS Committee Specification. An XML vocabulary for representing and exchanging biometric information in XML.

XKMS

XML Key Management Service. A set of trust services that can manage the registration and distribution of public keys. A W3C work-in-progress.

XLANG

A Web services orchestration language from Microsoft. Used as input to BPEL4WS.

See also [BPEL4WS]

XML

Extensible Markup Language. A W3C standard data format for electronic documents and messages. It is a self-describing meta-markup language. XML provides a universal data format that can be interpreted, processed, and transformed by any application running on any platform.

XML document

A structured electronic document written in XML.

XML Encryption

A W3C standard that defines a process for encrypting and decrypting all or part of an XML document. It also defines an XML syntax for representing encrypted content in an XML document and an XML syntax for representing the information that you need to decrypt the content.

XML element

A distinct piece of information within an XML document. An element is bounded by a set of tags.

XML protocol

A protocol for XML messages. A set of rules that govern the format and processing of XML messages. Examples include SOAP, ebMS, and XML-RPC.

XML Schema

A W3C standard that defines an XML grammar for defining the contents and structure of an XML document. Web services use XML schema to define the format of XML messages.

XML Signature

A W3C standard that defines an XML syntax to represent signed data in XML and a set of processing instructions to canonicalize XML, sign data, and interpret signatures.

XrML

Extensible Rights Markup Language. A content-centric XML language for specifying access rights and permissions. An OASIS work-in-progress.

XSLT

Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations. An XML-based programming language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents or other data formats.

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