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Category: Snell`s Clinical Anatomy

Dedication Again I say to students: The first day that you look at or place your hand on a patient, you require a basic knowledge of anatomy to interpret your observations. It is in the anatomy department that you learn the basic medical vocabulary that you will carry with you throughout your professional career and […]

Preface Each patient that you examine in your clinic with medical problems is composed of gross anatomic structures, which may or may not exhibit functional deficits. All students must therefore enter medicine with a basic knowledge of anatomy that is clinically relevant. The explosion in the knowledge of medical disease and the technological advances associated […]

Chapter 7The Pelvis: Part II—The Pelvic Cavity A 62-year-old man visited his physician for an annual physical examination. He appeared to be in very good health and had no complaints. A general examination revealed nothing abnormal. The physician then told the patient that he was about to perform a rectal examination. At first the patient […]

Chapter 8The Perineum A 51-year-old woman was seen by her physician for complaints of breathlessness, which she noticed was worse on climbing stairs. On questioning, she said that the problem started about 3 years ago and was getting worse. On examination, the patient was found to have a healthy appearance, although the conjunctivae and lips […]

Chapter 9The Upper Limb A 64-year-old woman fell down the stairs and was admitted to the emergency department with severe left shoulder pain. While she was sitting up her left arm was by her side and her left elbow was flexed and supported by her right hand. Inspection of the left shoulder showed loss of […]

Acknowledgments I am greatly indebted to many faculty members of the Department of Radiology at the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences for the loan of the radiographs, computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that have been reproduced in different sections of this book. I am also grateful to […]

Appendix: Useful Anatomic Data of Clinical Significance Respiratory System Table I Important Airway Distances (Adult)a Airway Distances (approx.) Incisor teeth to the vocal cords 5.9 in. (15 cm) Incisor teeth to the carina 7.9 in. (20 cm) External nares to the carina 11.8 in. (30 cm) a Average figures given ± 1–2 cm. Table II […]

Author Richard S. Snell MD, PhDEmeritus Professor of Anatomy George Washington University, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, D.C. Secondary Editors Crystal TaylorAcquisitions Editor Kelly HorvathManaging Editor Valerie SandersMarketing Manager Julie MontalbanoProduction Editor Doug SmockDesigner Maryland Composition, Inc. Compositor R.R. Donnelley & Sons—Willard Printer

Chapter 11 The Head and Neck A 58-year-old woman woke up one morning to find that the right side of her face felt “peculiar and heavy.” On looking in the mirror, she saw that the corner of her mouth on the right side was drooping and her right lower eyelid seemed to be lower than […]

Chapter 2 The Thorax: Part I—The Thoracic Wall A 20-year-old woman was the innocent victim of a street shoot-out involving drugs. On examination, the patient showed signs of severe hemorrhage and was in a state of shock. Her pulse was rapid and her blood pressure was dangerously low. There was a small entrance wound about […]

Chapter 3 The Thorax: Part II—The Thoracic Cavity A 54-year-old woman complaining of a sudden excruciating knifelike pain in the front of the chest was seen by a physician. During the course of the examination, she said that she could also feel the pain in her back between the shoulder blades. On close questioning she […]

Chapter 4 The Abdomen: Part I—The Abdominal Wall A 26-year-old man complaining of a painful swelling in the right groin was seen by his physician; he had vomited four times in the previous 3 hours. On examination, he was dehydrated and his abdomen was moderately distended. A large, tense swelling, which was very tender on […]

Chapter 5 The Abdomen: Part II—The Abdominal Cavity A 15-year-old boy complaining of pain in the lower right part of the anterior abdominal wall was seen by a physician. On examination, he was found to have a temperature of 101°F (38.3°C). He had a furred tongue and was extremely tender in the lower right quadrant. […]

Chapter 6 The Pelvis: Part I—The Pelvic Walls A 51-year-old man was involved in a light-plane accident. He was flying home from a business trip when, because of fog, he had to make a forced landing in a plowed field. On landing, the plane came abruptly to rest on its nose. His companion was killed […]

Chapter 10 The Lower Limb An 18-year-old student was doing part-time work delivering pizzas on his motorcycle. His boss insisted on quick delivery, so the student tended to weave in and out of traffic whenever there was a holdup. On one occasion, he misjudged the gap between two vehicles, and the outer surface of his […]

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