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Category: Review of Medical Physiology

Table 2. Some derived SI units. Quantity Unit Name Unit Symbol Area square meter m2 Clearance liter/second L/s Concentration Mass kilogram/liter kg/L Substance mole/liter mol/L Density kilogram/liter kg/L Electric potential volt V = kg m2/s3 A Energy joule J = kg m2/s2 Force newton N = kg m/s2 Frequency hertz Hz = 1 […]

Table 3. Standard prefixes. Prefix1 Abbreviation Magnitude exa- E 1018 peta- P 1015 tera- T 1012 giga- G 109 mega- M 106 kilo- k 103 hecto- h 102 deca- da 101 deci- d 10-1 centi- c 10-2 milli- m 10-3 micro- μ 10-6 nano- n, mμ 10-9 pico- p, μμ 10-12 femto- f 10-15 atto- […]

Table 4. Percentage of values in a population which will fall within various ranges within an ideal curve of normal distribution. Mean ± σ 68.27% Mean ± 1.96 σ 95.00% Mean ± 2 σ 95.45% Mean ± 3 σ 99.73%

Figure 1. Curve of normal distribution (frequency distribution curve of values from a homogeneous population).

Equivalents of Metric, United States, & English Measures (Values rounded off to 2 decimal places.) Length 1 kilometer = 0.62 mile 1 mile = 5280 feet = 1.61 kilometers 1 meter = 39.37 inches 1 inch = 1/12 foot = 2.54 centimeters Volume 1 liter = 1.06 US liquid quart 1 US liquid quart = […]

Greek Alphabet Symbol Name Α α alpha Β β beta Γ γ gamma Δ δ delta Ε ε epsilon Ζ ζ zeta Η η eta Θ θ theta Ι ι iota Κ κ kappa Λ λ lambda Μ μ mu Ν ν nu Ξ ξ xi Ο ο omicron Π π pi Ρ ρ rho […]

Standard Atomic Weights1 Based on the assigned relative mass of 12C = 12. For the sake of completeness, all known elements are included in the list. Several of those more recently discovered are represented only by the unstable isotopes. In each case, the values in parentheses in the atomic weight column are the mass numbers […]

Ranges of Normal Values in Human Whole Blood (B), Plasma (P), or Serum (S)1 Normal Value(Varies With Procedure Used) Determination Traditional Units SI Units Acetoacetate plus acetone (S) 0.3-2.0 mg/dL 3-20 mg/L Aldosterone (supine) (P) 3.0-10 ng/dL 83-227 pmol/L Alpha-amino nitrogen (P) 3.0-5.5 mg/dL 2.1-3.9 mmol/L Aminotransferases Alanine aminotransferase 3-48 units/L […]

Table 1. Basic units. Quantity Name Symbol Length meter m Mass kilogram kg Time second s Electric current ampere A Thermodynamic temperature kelvin K Luminous intensity candela cd Amount of substance mole mol

Some Standard Respiratory Symbols (See Handbook of Physiology, Section 3: The Respiratory System. American Physiological Society, 1986.) General VariablesV Gas volumeV Dot over Gas volume/unit of time. (Dot over a symbol indicates rate.)P Gas pressureP Bar over Mean gas pressuref Respiratory frequency (breaths/unit of time)D Diffusing capacityF Fractional concentration in dry gas phaseR Respiratory exchange […]

CHAPTER 38 This chapter is concerned with renal function, including glomerular filtration and the factors affecting it, tubular reabsorption and secretion and their control, and the function of the ureters and bladder. The endocrine functions of the kidney are also reviewed. The material in the chapter should help students to— • Describe the morphology of […]

CHAPTER 39 This chapter is a review of the homeostatic mechanisms that operate to maintain the osmolality, volume, and ionic composition of the extracellular fluid within normal limits. This includes the concentration of H+, with consideration of respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. The material in the chapter should help students to— • Describe how […]

Answers to Quantitative & Multiple-Choice Questions CHAPTER 1 1 (C) 2 (E) 3 (D) 4 (E) 5 (C) 6 (E) 7 (B) 8 (B) 9 (D) 10 (E) 11 (B) 12 (C) 13 (B) 14 (E) 15 (B) 16 (E) 17 (B) 18 (A) 19 (C) 20 (D) 21 (G) 22 (L) 23 (G) 24 […]

Appendix GENERAL REFERENCES Many large, comprehensive textbooks of physiology are available. The following are among the best that have been revised in the last 10 years: Berne RM, Levy MN (editors): Physiology, 3rd ed. Mosby, 1993. Guyton AC, Hall JE: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 10th ed. Saunders, 2000. Johnson LR (editor): Essential Medical Physiology, Raven […]

NORMAL VALUES & THE STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF DATA The approximate ranges of values in normal humans for some commonly measured plasma constituents are summarized in the table on the inside back cover. A worldwide attempt has been under way to convert to a single standard nomenclature by using SI (Systeme International) units. The system is […]