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Category: Nelson’s Textbook of Pediatrics

Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics Nineteenth Edition Robert M. Kliegman, MDProfessor and Chair, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin; Pediatrician-in-Chief, Pamela and Leslie Muma Chair in Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin; Executive Vice President, Children’s Research Institute, Milwaukee, Wisconsin Bonita F. Stanton, MDProfessor and Schotanus Family Endowed Chair of Pediatrics; Pediatrician-in-Chief, Carman and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Children’s […]

Dedication This edition is dedicated to the leadership, mentorship, and editorial wisdom of Richard E. Behrman. Dick’s monumental commitment to the field of pediatrics spans more than five decades as an editor, teacher, researcher, and clinician and has contributed greatly to the growth of the profession and the improved health and well-being of children across […]

Contributors Jon S. Abramson, MDChair, Department of Pediatrics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) Mark J. Abzug, MDProfessor, Department of Pediatrics-Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado School of Medicine, The Children’s Hospital, Aurora, Colorado Nonpolio Enteroviruses John J. Aiken, MD, FACS, FAAPAssociate Professor of Surgery, Division of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, […]

Preface The publication of the 19th edition of Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics combines an important synthesis of clinical pediatrics with the major advances in genomics, diagnosis, imaging, and therapeutics. The 19th edition continues to represent the “state of the art” on the care of the normal and ill neonate, child, or adolescent by presenting both […]

Front Matter Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics 19th Edition Robert M. Kliegman, MD Professor and Chair Department of Pediatrics Medical College of Wisconsin Pediatrician-in-Chief Pamela and Leslie Muma Chair in Pediatrics Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin Executive Vice President Children’s Research Institute Milwaukee, Wisconsin Bonita F. Stanton, MD Professor and Schotanus Family Endowed Chair of Pediatrics Pediatrician-in-Chief […]

Copyright    1600 John F. Kennedy Blvd. Ste 1800 Philadelphia, PA 19103-2899 NELSON TEXTBOOK OF PEDIATRICS, NINETEENTH EDITION ISBN: 978-1-4377-0755-7 INTERNATIONAL EDITION ISBN: 978-0-8089-2420-3 Copyright © 2011, 2007, 2004, 2000, 1996, 1992, 1987, 1983, 1979, 1975, 1969, 1964, 1959 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. Chapter 228: “Malassezia” by Martin E. Weisse and Ashley Maranich is […]

Chapter 708 – Reference Intervals for Laboratory Tests and Procedures Stanley F. Lo In Tables 708-1 through 708-6 (found on the Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics website at www.expertconsult.com   ), the reference intervals apply to infants, children, and adolescents when possible. For many analyses, however, separate reference intervals for children and adolescents are not well delineated. When interpreting a […]

Acknowledgments The author gratefully acknowledges the original contributions by Michael A. Pesce, on which portions of this chapter are based.

Testing in Refining a Differential Diagnosis The use of laboratory tests in refining a differential diagnosis satisfies PV theory because a correct differential diagnosis should result in a relatively high prevalence of the disease under consideration. An example of testing in refining a differential diagnosis is the measurement of urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) for the […]

Sensitivity, Accuracy, and Analytic Testing In some circumstances, the sensitivity and accuracy of an analysis are reduced or increased as functions of clinical purpose. For example, ion exchange chromatography of plasma amino acids for the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism is usually performed at an analytic sensitivity that allows measurement of all of the […]

Predictive Value of Laboratory Tests Predictive value (PV) theory deals with the usefulness of tests as defined by their clinical sensitivity (ability to detect a disease) and specificity (ability to define the absence of a disease). The problems addressed by PV theory are false-negative and false-positive test results. Both are major considerations in interpreting the […]

Neonatal Screening Tests Almost all of the diseases detected in neonatal screening programs have a very low prevalence, and for the most part, the tests are quantitative rather than qualitative. In general, the strategy is to use the initial screening test to separate a highly suspect group of patients from normal infants (i.e., to increase […]

Bibliography American Academy of Pediatrics, American Thyroid Association : Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism.  Pediatrics  1987; 80:745-749. Bulterys M, Jamieson DJ, O’Sullivan MJ, et al: Rapid HIV-1 testing during labor: a multicenter study.  JAMA  2004; 292:219-223. Clayton EW: Issues in state newborn screening programs.  Pediatrics  1992; 90:641-646. Farrell PM, Kosrok MR, Rock MJ, et al: Early diagnosis of cystic fibrosis through neonatal screening prevents severe malnutrition and improves long-term growth.  Pediatrics  2001; 107:1-13. Galen RS, Gambino SR: Beyond normality.  New York, Academic Press, 1975. Hu LT, Klempner MS: Update on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment […]

Part XXXIV – Laboratory Medicine Chapter 707 – Laboratory Testing in Infants and Children Stanley F. Lo Reference intervals, more commonly known as normal values, are difficult to establish within the pediatric population. Differences in genetic composition, physiologic development, environmental influences, and subclinical disease are variables that need to be considered when developing reference intervals. Other considerations for further defining […]

Hymenoptera Stings The insect order Hymenoptera includes the stinging ants, bees, and wasps, which are characterized by the presence of a modified ovipositor (stinger) at the end of the abdomen through which venom is injected. Various members of the order can be found throughout the world. Venoms and Effects Hymenoptera venoms, mixtures of proteins and […]

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