Category: Gray’s Anatomy, 40th ed

REFERENCES Bogduk, 1997. Bogduk N: Clinical Anatomy of the Lumbar Spine and Sacrum,  3rd edn.. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone, 1997. Brothwell and Pollard, 2001.  In: Brothwell DR, Pollard AM, ed. Handbook of Archaeological Sciences,  Chichester: Wiley; 2001. Cormack and Lamberty, 1994.  Cormack GC, Lamberty BGH 1994; see Bibliography. Crock, 1980. Crock HV: An atlas of the arterial supply of the head and neck of the femur in man.  Clin Orthop  1980; 152:17-25. Crock, 1996. […]

INTERNATIONAL REVIEWERS Masood Ahmed, MBBS, MS Professor, Department of Anatomy, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan Sadakazu Aiso, MD, PhD Professor, Department of Anatomy, Keio University, School of Medicine, Keio, Japan Saad Al-Ali, MB ChB, PhD Senior Lecturer, Department of Anatomy with Radiology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand PD Athavia, MB BS, MS, DHA, DHRD Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, Lokmanaya Tilak […]

Gray’s Anatomy, 40th Edition By Susan Standring, PhD, DSc, FKC A universal landmark in medicine ever since Drs. Henry Gray and H.V. Carter published the first edition in 1858, Gray’s Anatomy now celebrates its 150th anniversary! Book features: Completely re-imaged, full-colored art program Meticulously enhanced and updated artwork throughout, with 1,800 images now in full […]

Gray’s Anatomy The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice Fortieth Edition EDITOR-IN-CHIEF:Susan Standring, PhD, DSc, FKC Emeritus Professor of Anatomy, King’s College London, London, UK SECTION EDITORS:Neil R Borley, FRCS, FRCS(Ed), MS Consultant Colorectal Surgeon, Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Cheltenham General Hospital, Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Trust, Cheltenham, UK Patricia Collins, PhD Associate Professor of Anatomy, Anglo-European College of Chiropractic, Bournemouth, UK Alan […]

COVER IMAGE ‘Tractography reconstruction of the perisylvian language pathways’ from Catani M, Jones DK & ffytche DH, Ann Neurol 2005; 57(1):8–16 with permission of John Wiley & Sons. After almost 120 years this tractography reconstruction of the language pathways has updated the anatomy of the language networks. Image courtesy of Marco Catani, Natbrainlab, Centre for […]

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Within individual figure captions, we have acknowledged all figures kindly loaned from other sources. However, we would particularly like to thank the following authors who have generously loaned so many figures from other books published by Elsevier:    Drake R, Vogl W, Mitchell AWM 2004 Gray’s Anatomy for Students. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.    Drake […]

CONTRIBUTORS Michael A Adams, BSc, PhD Reader in Spine Biomechanics, Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Andrew Amis, PhD, DSc(Eng), FIMechE Professor of Orthopaedic Biomechanics, Imperial College London, London, UK Robert H Anderson, BSc, MD, FRCPath Formerly Professor of Paediatric Cardiac Morphology, Institute of Child Health, University College, London, UK Professor of Paediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, […]

REVIEWERS Andrew Amis, PhD, DSc (Eng), FiMechE Professor of Orthopaedic Biomechanics, Imperial College London, London, UK Anthony Bull, BEng, DIC CEng, PhD, FiMechE Reader in Musculoskeletal Mechanics, Department & Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, UK Robert F Brooks, BSc, PhD Senior Lecturer, Department of Anatomy and Human Sciences, School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, King’s College London, London, UK Michael Gleeson, MD, FRCS […]

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION The year 2008 sees the 150th anniversary of the publication of Gray’s Anatomy. The book is a rarity in textbook publishing in having been in continuous publication on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, for so long. One and a half centuries is an exceptionally long era for a textbook, and of course […]

ANATOMICAL NOMENCLATURE Anatomy is the study of the structure of the body. It is conventionally divided into topographical or gross anatomy (which includes surface, or ‘living’, anatomy, neuroanatomy, endoscopic and imaging anatomy), microscopic anatomy or histology and embryology (the study of the embryo and fetus). Anatomical language is one of the fundamental languages of medicine. […]

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SELECTED TITLES The following references contain information relevant to numerous chapters in this edition. They are therefore cited here rather than at the end of individual chapters. For an extended historical bibliography, all references from the 38th edition are available on the website which accompanies Gray’s Anatomy. TERMINOLOGY Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology […]

PREFACE The 40th edition of Gray’s Anatomy celebrates 150 years of continuous publication of an extraordinary book. Although this edition looks very different from the first edition (see Ruth Richardson’s historical introduction on page xvii), the essential aim of Henry Gray and the illustrator Henry Vandyke Carter, to describe the clinically relevant anatomy of the […]

REFERENCES Barlow and Clarke, 1994. Barlow I, Clarke NMP: Congenital talipes equinovarus.  Surgery  1994; 12:211-215. Swanson, 1976. Swanson AB: A classification for congenital limb malformations.  J Hand Surg  1976; 1:8-22.

CHAPTER 85 – Development of the pelvic girdle and lower limb STAGES OF LOWER LIMB DEVELOPMENT The lower limb is first recognizable as a laterally projecting ridge at stage 13 and by stage 14 it is closely associated with the wide umbilical cord. During stages 15–17 the limb projects laterally and outgrowth is fairly symmetrical. By stage […]

NEONATAL LOWER LIMB In the neonate the pelvis is cone-shaped. The transverse diameter of the true pelvis is 2.2 cm, its anteroposterior diameter 2.8 cm, and the length between the inlet and outlet is 2 cm. The sacrum is proportionately larger than in the adult and the sacral promontory is higher. When walking begins, the […]

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