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Appendix – Useful Anatomic Data of Clinical Significance.htm

Appendix: Useful Anatomic Data of Clinical Significance Respiratory System

Table I Important Airway Distances (Adult)a
Airway Distances (approx.)
Incisor teeth to the vocal cords 5.9 in. (15 cm)
Incisor teeth to the carina 7.9 in. (20 cm)
External nares to the carina 11.8 in. (30 cm)
a Average figures given ± 1–2 cm.
Table II Important Data Concerning the Tracheaa
  Length (approx.) Diameter (approx.)
Adults 4.5 in. (11.4 cm) 1 in. (2.5 cm)
Infants 1.6–2 in. (4–5 cm) As small as 3 mmb
a Extension of the head and neck, as when maintaining an airway in an anesthetized patient, may stretch the trachea and increase its length by 25%. In the adult, the carina may descend by as much as 3 cm on deep inspiration. At the carina, the right bronchus leaves the trachea at an angle of 25° from the vertical and the left bronchus leaves the trachea at an angle of 45° from the vertical. In children younger than 3 years, both bronchi arise from the trachea at equal angles.
b As children grow, the diameter in millimeters corresponds approximately to their age in years.

Digestive System

Table III Lengths and Capacities
Region Lengths (approx.) Capacities (approx.)
Esophagus 10 in. (25 cm) —
Stomacha Lesser curvature
4.8–5.6 in.
(12–14 cm)
1500 mL
Duodenum 10 in. (25 cm) —
Jejunum 8 ft. (2.4 m) —
Ileum 12 ft. (3.7 m) —
Appendix 3–5 in. (8–13 cm) —
Ascending colon 5 in. (13 cm) —
Transverse colon 15 in. (38 cm) —
Descending colon 10 in. (25 cm) —
Sigmoid colon 10–15 in. (25–38 cm) —
Rectum 5 in. (13 cm) —
Anal canal 1.5 in. (4 cm) —
Gallbladder 2.8–3.9 in. (7–10 cm) 30–50 mL
Cystic duct 1.5 in. (3.8 cm) —
Bile duct 3 in. (8 cm) —
a The curved course taken by a nasogastric tube from the cardiac orifice to the pylorus is usually longer, 6–10 in. (15–25 cm).

Urinary System

Table IV Lengths and Capacities
Organ Lengths (approx.) Capacity (approx.)
Ureter 10 in. (25 cm) —
Bladder — 500 mL
Male urethra 8 in. (20 cm) —
   Penile 6 in. (15.7 cm) —
   Membranous 0.5 in. (1.25 cm) —
   Prostatic 1.25 in. (3 cm) —
Female urethra 1.5 in. (3.8 cm) —

Reproductive System

Table V Dimensions
Organ Dimensions (approx.)
Male
   Testis 2 × 1 in. (5 × 2.5 cm)
   Vas deferens 18 in. (45 cm)
   Penis (erect) 6 in. (15 cm)
Female
   Ovary 1.5 × 0.75 in. (4 × 2 cm)
   Uterine tube 4 in. (10 cm)
   Uterus 3 × 2 × 1 in. (8 × 5 × 2.5 cm)
   Vagina 3 in. (8 cm)
Figure 1 Critical times in the maturation of the human fetus during which mutant genes, drugs, or environmental factors may alter normal development of specific structures.

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