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ABBREVIATIONS & SYMBOLS COMMONLY USED IN PHYSIOLOGY

ABBREVIATIONS & SYMBOLS COMMONLY USED IN PHYSIOLOGY
Use of abbreviations and acronyms has become so extensive in modern physiology and related sciences that it would be impossible to present a complete list here. Furthermore, most proteins that are isolated today are simply assigned a name made up of letters and numbers that bears no relation to their function. Therefore, the following list is incomplete and in some ways arbitrary. However, it should identify for the reader many of the terms and symbols commonly used in physiology.
[ ] Concentration of Δ Change in (Example: ΔV = change in volume.) In steroid nomenclature, Δ followed by a number (eg, 0.Δ4-) indicates the position of a double bond47 s Standard deviation of a whole population Ia, Ib, II, III, IV Types of fibers in sensory nerves (see
Chapter 2) nerve fibers μ Micro, 10-6; see Table 3, a Atto-, 10-18; see Table 3, A () Angstrom unit(s) (10-10 m, 0.1 nm); also alanine A- General symbol for anion A1, A2, A1B, Major blood groups A2B, B, O AASH Adrenal androgen-stimulating hormone ABC ATP-binding cassette A, B, and C Types of fibers in peripheral nerves (see Chapter 2) nerve fibers ABP Androgen-binding protein ACE Angiotensin-converting enzyme Acetyl-CoA Acetyl-coenzyme A Ach Acetylcholine ACTH Adrenocorticotropic hormone Acyl-CoA General symbol for an organic compound-coenzyme A ester ADH Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) ADP Adenosine diphosphate AGEs Advanced glycosylation end products AHG Antihemophilic globulin Ala Alanine ALS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALT Alanine aminotransferase AM Adrenomedullin AME Apparent mineralocorticoid excess AMP Adenosine 5′-monophosphate AMPA α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxa- zole-4-proprionate ANOVA Analysis of variance ANP Atrial natriuretic peptide 4-AP 4-Aminopyridine AP-1 Activator protein 1 APC Activated protein C; also antigen-presenting cell Apo E Apolipoprotein E APP Amyloid precursor protein APUD cells Amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation cells that secrete hormones ARDS Acute respiratory distress syndrome ARF ADP-ribosylation factor Arg Arginine β-ARK β-Adrenergic kinase Asn Asparagine Asp Aspartic acid AST Aspartate aminotransferase atm Atmosphere: 1 atm = 760 torr = mean atmospheric pressure at sea level ATP Adenosine triphosphate A-V difference Arteriovenous concentration difference of any given substance AV node Atrioventricular node AVP Arginine vasopressin aVR, aVF, aVL Augmented unipolar electrocardiographic leads AV valves Atrioventricular valves of heart ATPD See Table 34-1 ATPS See Table 34-1 BDNF Brain-derived neurotrophic factor BER Basic electric rhythm BGP Bone Gla protein BMI Body mass index BMP Bone morphogenic protein BMR Basal metabolic rate BNP Brain natriuretic peptide BSP Sulfobromophthalein BTPS See Table 34-1 BUN Blood urea nitrogen c Centi-, 10-2; seeTable 3 C Celsius; also cysteine CART Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript C followed by Clearance; eg, CIn, clearance of inulin subscript C peptide Connecting peptide C19 steroids Steroids containing 19 carbon atoms C21 steroids Steroids containing 21 carbon atoms cADPR Cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose cal The calorie (gram calorie) Cal 1000 calories; kilocalorie CAM Cell adhesion molecule CaMKII Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II cAMP Cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate CBF Cerebral blood flow CBG Corticosteroid-binding globulin, transcortin cc Cubic centimeters CCK Cholecystokinin CCK-PZ Cholecystokinin-pancreozymin CDs Clusters of differentiation CEH Cholesteryl ester hydrolase CFF Critical fusion frequency c-fos One of the immediate early response genes CFTR Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator cGMP Cyclic 3′,5′-guanosine monophosphate CGP Chorionic growth hormone-prolactin (same as hCS) CGRP Calcitonin gene-related peptide CH2O “Free water clearance” Ci Curie c-jun One of the immediate early response genes CLIP Corticotropin-like intermediate-lobe polypeptide CMRO2 Cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen CNG Cyclic nucleotide-gated CNP The third natriuretic peptide CNS Central nervous system CNTF Ciliary neurotrophic factor CoA Coenzyme A COHb Carbonmonoxyhemoglobin Compound B Corticosterone Compound E Cortisone Compound F Cortisol Compound S 11-Deoxycortisol COMT Catechol-O-methyltransferase C peptide Connecting peptide CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation cps Cycles per second, hertz CR Conditioned reflex CREB cAMP-responsive element binding protein CRH, CRF Corticotropin-releasing hormone (factor) CRO Cathode-ray oscilloscope CS Conditioned stimulus CSF Cerebrospinal fluid; also colony-stimulating factor CT Computed tomography C terminal -COOH end of a peptide or protein CTP Cytidine triphosphate CV Closing volume CVLM Caudal ventrolateral medulla CVR Cerebral vascular resistance cyclic AMP Cyclic adenosine 3´,5´-monophosphate Cys Cysteine CZI Crystalline zinc insulin d Day d Geometric isomer of L form of chemical compound D Aspartic acid 5´Dl, 5´Dll;, 5´Dlll Type I, II, III iodotyrosine dieodinases Da Dalton, unit of mass equal to one-twelfth the mass of the carbon-12 atom, or about 1.66 × 10-24 g DAG Diacylglycerol dB Decibel DBH Dopamine β-hydroxylase DBP Vitamin D-binding protein DDAVP 1-Deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin DDD Derivative of DDT that inhibits adrenocortical function DEA, DHEA, DHA Dehydroepiandrosterone DEAS, DHEAS, DHAS Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate DFP Diisopropyl fluorophosphate DHT Dihydrotestosterone DHTs Dihydroxy derivatives of eicosatetraenoic acid DIT Diiodotyrosine DMT N,N-Dimethyltryptamine DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid D/N ratio Ratio of dextrose (glucose) to nitrogen in the urine D2O Deuterium oxide (heavy water) DOCA Deoxycorticosterone acetate DOM 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine DOMA 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid Dopa Dihydroxyphenylalanine, L-dopa DOPAC 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid DOPEG 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycol DOPET 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethanol DPG,2,3-DPG 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate DPL Dipalmitoyl lecithin DPN Diphosphopyridine nucleotide DPNH Reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide DPPC Dipalmitoylphosphatidyl-choline e Base for natural logarithms = 2.7182818 . . . E Glutamic acid E followed by Esophageal electrocardiographic lead, followed by number of centimeters it is subscript number inserted into esophagus E cells Expiratory neurons E1 Estrone E2 Estradiol EACA Epsilon-aminocaproic acid ECF Extracellular fluid eCG Equine chorionic gonadotropin ECG, EKG Electrocardiogram ECL cells Enterochromaffin-like cells ECoG Electrocorticogram EDRF Endothelium-derived relaxing factor EDTA Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EEG Electroencephalogram EET Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid EETs Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids EGF Epidermal growth factor Egr Early growth response factor EJP Excitatory junction potential EMG Electromyogram ENaC Epithelial sodium channel EP Endogenous pyrogen EPSP Excitatory postsynaptic potential eq Equivalent ERα, ERβ Estrogen receptors α and β ERG Electroretinogram ERKO Estrogen receptor knockout ERP Event-related potential ERPF Effective renal plasma flow ET-1, ET-2, ET-3 Endothelin-1, -2, -3 ETP Electron transport particle f Femto-, 10-15; see Table 3, above F Fahrenheit; also phenylalanine FAD Flavin adenine dinucleotide FDP Fibrinogen degradation products FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in first second of forced expiration after maximum inspiration FFA Unesterified free fatty acid (also called NEFA, UFA) FGF Fibroblast growth factor FGFR Fibroblast growth factor receptor FLAP 5-Lipoxygenase-activating protein FMN Flavin mononucleotide fMRI Functional magnetic resonance imaging FSH Follicle-stimulating hormone ft Foot or feet g, gm Gram or grams g Unit of force; 1 g equals the force of gravity on the earth’s surface G Glucose; also giga-, 109; see Table 3, above; also glycine GABA Gamma-aminobutyrate GABA-T GABA transaminase GAD Glutamate decarboxylase GBG Gonadal steroid-binding globulin G-CSF Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor GFR Glomerular filtration rate GH Growth hormone GHS Growth hormone secretagogue GIH, GIF Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone or factor GIP Gastric inhibitory peptide Gla Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid GLI Glicentin Gln Glutamine GLP-1, -2 Glucagon-like polypeptide-1, -2 GLP-1 (7-36) Glucagon-like polypeptide-1 (7-36) amide amide Glu Glutamic acid GLUT Glucose transporter Gly Glycine GM-CSF Granulocyte-macrophage colony- stimulating factor GnRH Gonadotropin-releasing hormone; same as LHRH G6PD Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase GRA Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism GRH, GRF Growth hormone-releasing hormone GRP Gastrin-releasing polypeptide GRPP Glicentin-related polypeptide GTP Guanosine triphosphate h Hour H Histidine HA General symbol for an acid Hb Deoxygenated hemoglobin HbA1c Hemoglobin A1c HBE His bundle electrogram HbO2 Oxyhemoglobin HCC, 25-HCC 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol, a metabolite of vitamin D3 hCG Human chorionic gonadotropin hCS Human chorionic somatomammo- tropin Hct Hematocrit HDL High-density lipoprotein hGH Human growth hormone 5-HIAA 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid HIFs Hypoxia-inducible factors HIOMT Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase His Histidine HIV Human immunodeficiency virus HLA Human leukocyte antigen HMG-CoA 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl reductase coenzyme A reductase HO2 Subtype of heme oxygenase hPL Human placental lactogen (same as hCS) HPNS High-pressure nervous syndrome HS-CoA Reduced coenzyme A HSP Heat shock protein H substance Histamine-like capillary vasodilator 5-HT Serotonin hTRα, hTRβ Human thyroid hormone receptor α, β HVA Homovanillic acid Hyl Hydroxylysine Hyp 4-Hydroxyproline Hz Hertz, unit of frequency. 1 cycle per second = 1 hertz I Isoleucine ICA cells Intrinsic cardiac adrenergic cells ICAM Intracellular adhesion molecule I cells Inspiratory neurons; also intercalated cells in the renal tubules IDDM Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus IDL Intermediate-density lipoprotein IFN Interferon IGF-I, IGF-I Insulin-like growth factors I and II 123I-IMP 123I-labeled iodoamphetamine IJP Inhibitory junction potential IL Interleukin Ile, Ileu Isoleucine IML Intermediolateral gray column In Inulin IP3 Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, inositol triphosphate IPSP Inhibitory postsynaptic potential IRDS Infant respiratory distress syndrome ITP Inosine triphosphate IU International unit IUD Intrauterine device J Joule (SI unit of energy) JAK Janus tyrosine kinase JG cells Juxtaglomerular cells k Kilo-, 103; see Table 3, above K Lysine; also kilodalton kcal (Cal) Kilocalorie (1000 calories) KE Exchangeable body potassium Kf Glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient l Geometric isomer of D form of chemical compound L Leucine LATS Long-acting thyroid stimulator LCAT Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase LCR Locus control region LDH Lactate dehydrogenase LDL Low-density lipoprotein LES Lower esophageal sphincter Leu Leucine LH Luteinizing hormone LIF Leukemia inhibitory factor ln Natural logarithm log Logarithm to base 10 LPH Lipotropin LHRH Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone; same as GnRH LRP LDL receptor-related protein LSD Lysergic acid diethylamide LTD Long-term depression LTP Long-term potentiation LVET Left ventricular ejection time Lys Lysine m Meter(s); also milli-, 10-3; see Table 3, above M Molarity (mol/L); also mega-, 106; see Table 3, above; also methionine M cells Microfold cells M1 Motor cortex MAO Monoamine oxidase MBC Maximal breathing capacity (same as MVV) M-CSF Macrophage colony-stimulating factor MCH Melanin-concentrating hormone MCP-1 Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 MDMA 3,4-Methylenedioxymethampheta- mine Met Methionine MGP Matrix Gla protein MHC Major histocompatibility complex; also myosin heavy chain mho Unit of conductance; the reciprocal of the ohm MHPG 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol min Minute MIS Mullerian inhibiting substance; same as MRF, mullerian regression factor MIT Monoiodotyrosine MMC Migrating motor complex mol Mole, gram-molecular weight MPGF Major proglucagon fragment MPP- 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium MPR Mannose-6-phosphate receptor MPTP 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahy- dropyridine MRI Magnetic resonance imaging mRNA Messenger RNA MSH Melanocyte-stimulating hormone MT 3-Methoxytyramine MTOC Microtubule-organizing center multi-CSF Multipotential colony-stimulating factor MVV Maximal voluntary ventilation n nano-, 10-9; see Table 3, above N Normality (of a solution): also newton (SI unit of force); also asparagine NAD+ Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; same as DPN NADH Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; same as DPNH NADP+ Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; same as TPN NADPH Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; same as TPNH NaE Exchangeable body sodium NEAT Nonexercise activity thermogenesis NEFA Unesterified (nonesterified) free fatty acid (same as FFA) NEP Neutral endopeptidase NF-κB Nuclear factor B NGF Nerve growth factor NIDDM Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus NIS Sodium/iodide symporter NMDA N-Methyl-D-aspartate NO Nitric oxide NOS Nitric oxide synthase NPH insulin Neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin NPN Nonprotein nitrogen NREM sleep Nonrapid eye movement (spindle) sleep NSAID Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug NSILA Nonsuppressible insulin-like activity NSILP Nonsuppressible insulin-like protein N terminal -NH2 (amino) group end of peptide or protein NT-3, NT-4/5 Neurotrophin 3, neurotrophin 4/5 NTS Nucleus of the tractus solitarius O Indicates absence of a sex chromosome, eg, XO as opposed to XX or XY OBP Odorant-binding protein 25-OHD3 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol 1,25-(OH)2D3 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol OGF Ovarian growth factor osm Osmole OVLT Organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis p Pico-, 10-12; see Table 3, above P Proline P0 Protein zero P followed by Plasma concentration, eg, PCr = plasma creatinine concentration; subscript also permeability coefficient, eg, PNa+ = permeability coefficient for Na+; also pressure (see respiratory symbols, below) P450 Cytochrome P450 P50 Partial pressure of O2 at which hemoglobin is half-saturated with O2 Pa Pascal (SI unit of pressure) P Ab Antibodies against thyroid peroxidase PACAP Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating poly-peptide PAF Platelet-activating factor PAH p-Aminohippuric acid PAM Pulmonary alveolar macrophage PBI Protein-bound-iodine P cells Principal cells in the renal tubules; also pacemaker cells of SA and AV nodes PCR Polymerase chain reaction PDECGF Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor PDGF Platelet-derived growth factor PEEP Positive end-expiratory pressure breathing PEP Preejection period PET Positron emission tomography P factor Hypothetical pain-producing substance produced in ischemic muscle PGO spikes Ponto-geniculo-occipital spikes in REM sleep pH Negative logarithm of the H+ concentration of a solution Phe Phenylalanine PHM-27 Peptide histidyl methionine, produced along with VIP from preproVIP in humans Pi Inorganic phosphate PIH, PIF Prolactin-inhibiting hormone PK Negative logarithm of the equilibrium constant for a chemical reaction PLC Phospholipase C PMN Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte PMS Premenstrual syndrome PNMT Phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase POMC Pro-opiomelanocortin PPAR Peroxisome proliferation-activation receptor PRA Plasma renin activity PRC Plasma renin concentration PRH, PRF Prolactin-releasing hormone PRL Prolactin Pro Proline Prot- Protein anion 5-PRPP 5-Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate PTA Plasma thromboplastin antecedent ( factor XI) PTC Plasma thromboplastin component (clotting factor IX); also phenylthiocarbamide PTH Parathyroid hormone PTHrP Parathyroid hormone-related protein (pyro)Glu Pyroglutamic acid PYY Polypeptide YY PZI Protamine zinc insulin Q Glutamine QS2 Total electromechanical systole R General symbol for remainder of a chemical formula, eg, an alcohol is R-OH; also gas constant; also respiratory exchange ratio; also arginine RAS Reticular activating system rbc Red blood cell rCBF Regional cerebral blood flow rCMRO2 Regional cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen RDS Respiratory distress syndrome Re Reynolds number REF Renal erythropoietic factor REM sleep Rapid eye movement (paradoxical) sleep Reverse T3 3,3´,5´-Triiodothyronine; isomer of triiodothyronine RFLP Restriction fragment length polymorphism Rh factor Rhesus group of red cell agglutinogens RGS Regulator of G protein signaling RMV Respiratory minute volume RNA Ribonucleic acid RPF Renal plasma flow RQ Respiratory quotient R state State of heme in hemoglobin that increases O2 binding R unit Unit of resistance in cardiovascular system; mm Hg divided by mL/s RVLM Rostral ventrolateral medulla RXR Retinoid X receptor s Second; also standard deviation of a sample S Serine SA Specific activity SA node Sinoatrial node SCF Stem cell factor SCFA Short-chain fatty acid SCL Protein produced by stem cell leukemia gene SCN Suprachiasmatic nucleus SCUBA Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus SDA Specific dynamic action SEM Standard error of the mean Ser Serine SERMs Selective estrogen receptor modulators SF-1 Steroid factor-1 SFO Subfornical organ Sf units Svedberg units of flotation sgk Serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase SGLT 1 Sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 SGOT Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase SH Sulfhydryl SI units Units of the Systeme International SIADH Syndrome of inappropriate hypersecretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) SIDS Sudden infant death syndrome SIF cells Small, intensely fluorescent cells in sympathetic ganglia smg Small GTP-binding protein SMS Stiff-man syndrome SOCC Store-operated calcium channel SOD Superoxide dismutase SPCA Proconvertin (clotting factor VII) SPECT Single photon emission computed tomography SPI One of the shear stress activated transcription factors sq cm Square centimeter, cm2 SRE Serum response element SRIF Somatotropin release-inhibiting factor; same as GIH sRNA Soluble or transfer RNA SRY Product of sex-determining region of Y chromosome SS 14 Somatostatin 14 SS 28 Somatostatin 28 SS 28 (1-12) Polypeptide related to somatostatin that is found in tissues SSRE Shear stress response element STAT Signal transducer and activator of transcription STH Somatotropin, growth hormone STPD See Table 34-1 STX Saxitoxin Substance P Polypeptide found in brain and other tissues T Absolute temperature; also threonine T3 3,5,3´-Triiodothyronine T4 Thyroxine TBG Thyroxine-binding globulin TBPA Thyroxine-binding prealbumin (now called transthyretin) TBW Total body water 99mTc-PYP Technetium 99m stannous pyrophosphate Tc cells Cytotoxic T cells TDF Testis-determining factor TEA Tetraethylammonium TETRAC Tetraiodothyroacetic acid TF/P Concentration of a substance in renal tubular fluid divided by its concentration in plasma TG Ab Antibodies against thyroglobulin TGF Transforming growth factor THC Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Thr Threonine TLRs Toll-like receptors Tm Renal tubular maximum TM Thrombomodulin TNF Tumor necrosis factor torr 1/760 atm = 1.00000014 mm Hg; unit for various pressures in the body t-PA Tissue-type plasminogen activator TPN Triphosphopyridine nucleotide TPNH Reduced triphosphopyridine nucleotide TR Thyroid hormone receptor TRH, TRF Thyrotropin-releasing hormone or factor tRNA Transfer RNA; same as sRNA TRP Transient receptor potential Trp, Try, Tryp Tryptophan TSF Thrombopoietic-stimulating factor, thrombopoietin TSH Thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH-R [block] Ab TSH receptor-blocking antibodies TSH-R [stim] Ab TSH receptor-stimulating antibodies TSI Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins T/S ratio Thyroid/serum iodide ratio T state State of heme in hemoglobin that decreases O2 binding TTX Tetrodotoxin Tyr Tyrosine U Unit U followed by Urine concentration, eg, UCr = urine creatinine concentration subscript UCP Uncoupling protein UDPG Uridine diphosphoglucose UDPGA Uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid UFA Unesterified free fatty acid (same as FFA) UL Unstirred layer u-PA Urokinase-type plasminogen activator URF Uterine-relaxing factor; relaxin US Unconditioned stimulus UTP Uridine triphosphate V Volume; volt; also valine V1, V2, etc Unipolar chest electrocardiographic leads Val Valine VCAM Vascular cell adhesion molecule VEGF Vascular endotheleial growth factor VF Unipolar left leg electrocardiographic lead VIP Vasoactive intestinal peptide Volume per unit time VL Left arm unipolar electrocardiographic lead VLDL Very low density lipoprotein VLM Ventrolateral medulla VMA Vanillylmandelic acid (3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid) 2max Maximal oxygen consumption VOR Vestibulo-ocular reflex VR Unipolar right arm electrocardiographic lead W Tryptophan wbc White blood cell X chromosome One of the sex chromosomes in humans X zone Inner zone of adrenal cortex in some young mammals Y Tyrosine Y chromosome One of the sex chromosomes in humans

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